It is clear from equations (4.4) and (4.5) that nitrate gains electrons and is reduced to nitrogen gas, which is the electron acceptor. The carbon source, in this example methanol, loses electrons and is oxidized to carbon dioxide, therefore it is the electron donor.
As mentioned in Section 3.4, these reactions take place in the context of the carbonic acid system. Equations (4.4) and (4.5) can be modified to reflect the fact that the hydroxide (OH") produced reacts with carbonic acid (carbon dioxide) to produce hydrogen carbonate alkalinity.
Nitrogen dissimilation and growth in denitrifcation reaction: Nitrate to nitrite:
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