Global Perspectives

Proceedings of the 13 International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 2-7 July 2001

Edited by:

Turlough M. Finan, Mark R. O'Brian, David B. Layzell, J. Kevin Vessey and William Newton

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International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation (13th : 2001 : Hamilton, Ont.)

Nitrogen fixation: global perspectives : proceedings of the 13 th International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, July 2-7, 2001 / edited by Turlough M. Finan ... [et al.]. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-85199-591-8

1. Nitrogen -Fixation-Congresses. I. Finan, Turlough M. II. Title. QR89.7.I564 2001 572'.545—dc21

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

2002000584

ISBN 0 85199 595 0

Printed and bound in the UK by Biddies Ltd, Guildford and King's Lynn, from copy supplied by the editors.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Sponsors xiii

Committee Membership xiv

PREFACE xix

JOHANNA DOBEREINER MEMORIAL LECTURE_

Johanna Dobereiner: Fifty years dedicated to the biological nitrogen fixation research area

INORGANIC NITROGEN COMPLEXES: A CANADIAN DISCOVERY_

The discovery of Nitrogenpentaamminerutheniumchloride [Ru11 (NH3)5N2]Cl2 - the first nitrogen complex by A.D. Allen and C.V. Senoffin 1965

R.J. GILLESPIE 5

KEYNOTE ADDRESS_

Biofixation and nitrogen in the biosphere and in global food production

SECTION 1: CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF NITROGENASE_

Chair's Comments: Overview of the session

B.K. BURGESS 13

Localization of the nitrogenase substrate binding site

S.M. MAYER, J. CHRISTIANSEN, P.C. DOS SANTOS, W.G. NIEHAUS,

Biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase: Roles of dinitrogenase reductase and NafY

P.W. LUDDEN, P. RANGARAJ, L. RUBIO, C. RUTTIMANN-JOHNSON, D. DYER, J. CHENG, V.K. SHAH 20

Nitrogenase mechanism: Can old lags teach us new tricks?

R.N.F. THORNELEY, H. ANGOVE, G.A. ASHBY, M.C. DURRANT,

S.A. FAIRHURST, S.J. GEORGE, P.C. HALLENBECK, A. SINCLAIR,

J.D. TOLLAND 25

Azide, cyanide and nitrite are new substrates of the oxygen-dependent nitrogenase of the thermophilic bacterium Streptomyces thermoautotrophicus

SECTION 2: BACTERIAL GENOMICS

Chair's Comments: The whole chromosome sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021

D. CAPELAei al 39

The 1683 kb replicon of Sinorhizobium meliloti'. Past and present investigations into the nature of a very large bacterial plasmid

S.R. MACLELLAN, C.D. SIBLEY, B. GOLDING, T.M. FINAN 41

Sequencing and annotation of the megaplasmid pSymB of the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti

S. WEIDNER, J. BUHRMESTER, L. SHARYPOVA, F.-J. VÖRHOLTER,

Proteome analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti

M.A. DJORDJEVIC, S.H. NATERA, H.-C. CHEN, G. WEILLER, C. MENZEL,

G. VAN NOORDEN, J. WEINMAN, S. TAYLOR, K. GUO, B.G. ROLFE 50

Comparison of chromosomal genes from Mesorhizobium loti and Sinorhizobium meliloti suggest an ancestral genome

R.A. MORTON 55

Chair's Comments: Evolution, ecology and ecosystems

D. PREVOST 59

Rhizobia: The family is expanding

L. MOULIN, W.M. CHEN, G. BENA, B. DREYFUS, C. BOIVIN-MASSON 61

Genome diversity at the Phe-tRNA locus in a field population of Mesorhizobia

C.W. RONSON, J.T. SULLIVAN, G.S. WIJKSTRA, T. CARLTON, K. MUIRHEAD,

J.R. TRZEBIATOWSKI, J. GOUZY, F.J. DE BRUIJN 66

How well does 16S rRNA gene phylogeny represent evolutionary relationships among the Rhizobia?

Genetics and genomics of stress-induced gene expression in Rhizobia

F.J. DE BRUIJN, F. AMPE, J. BATUT, H. BERGES, M. DAVALOS, M.E. DAVEY,

J. GOUZY, D. KAHN, E. KISS, E. LAUBER, C. LIEBE, A. MILCAMPS, C. RONSON,

P. STRUFFI, J. SULLIVAN, J. TRZEBIATOWSKI, C. VRIEZEN 75

The genomes of nitrogen-fixing organisms

R. PALACIOS 80

Complete genome structure of Mesorhizobium loti strain MAFF303099

T. KANEKO, Y. NAKAMURA, S. SATO, E. ASAMIZU, T. KATO, S. TABATA 82

The symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CFN 42

P. BUSTOS, M.A. CEVALLOS, J. COLLADO-VIDES, V. GONZÁLEZ,

A. MEDRANO, G. MORENO, M.A. RAMÍREZ, D.R. ROMERO, J.G. DÁVILA

Nitrogen fixation: Analysis of the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme

T. THIEL, J.C. MEEKS, J. ELHAI, M. POTTS, F. LARIMER, J. LAMERDIN,

P.PREDKI, R. ATLAS 88

SECTION 3: PLANT GENOMICS

Integrated functional genomics to define the plant's function in symbiotic nodulation P.M. GRESSHOFF, J. STILLER, T. MAGUIRE, D. LOHAR, S. AYANRU, D. BUZAS, S. HABAMUNGA, L. SMITH, B. CARROLL, I. SEARLE, K. MEKSEM, D. LIGHTFOOT, S. GRIMMOND, A.E. MEN 95

Genomics tools for dissecting nodulation in the model legume Medicago truncatula

K.A. VANDENBOSCH, D.R. COOK 99

A large scale genome analysis of Lotus japonicus, MG-20

S. SATO, T. KANEKO, Y. NAKAMURA, T. KATO, E. ASAMIZU, S. TABATA 103

Genetics and genomics in Lotus japonicus

N. SANDAL, L. KRUSELL, S. RADUTOIU, M. OLBRYT, A. PEDROSA,

S. STRACKE, M. PARNISKE, A. BACHMAIR, T. KETELSEN, J. STOUGAARD 107

Lotus japonicus functional genomics: cDNA microarray analysis uncovers novel nodulins

M. UDVARDI, T. ALTMANN, B. ESSIGMANN, G. COLEBATCH, S. KLOSKA,

P. SMITH, B. TREVASKIS 109

SECTION 4: SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

Chair's Comments: Signal transduction in symbiosis: Getting in deeper and deeper M.KAHN 115

Signal exchange during the early events of soybean nodulation

G. STACEY, J. LOH, B. ZHANG, Y.-H. LEE, C. BICKLEY, D. LOHAR,

Map based cloning of a receptor kinase gene (NORK) by genetic mapping of a mutation

(;nnj) conditioning non-nodulating phenotype in the tetraploid alfalfa mutant MN-1008

G.B. KISS, S. MIHACEA, Z. KEVEI, P. KALO, A. PERHALD, A. SERES,

A. KERESZT, G. ENDRE 123

Plant and bacterial genotype interactions in early stages of infection of pea by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae

J.A. DOWNIE, S. WALKER, B. HOGG, A.E. DAVIES, V. VIPREY 127

SECTION 5: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Legume plant nitrogen fixation symbiotic mutants - a promising tool for understanding fundamental processes and molecular bases of plant development

I.A. TIKHONOVICH 135

Role of reactive oxygen species and ethylene in programmed cell death during nodule initiation on Sesbania rostrata

W. D'HAEZE, C. CHAPARRO, A. DE KEYSER, S. DELEU, R. DE RYCKE, S. GOORMACHTIG, S. LIEVENS, R. MATHIS, K. SCHROEYERS,

W. VAN DE VELDE, D. VEREECKE, C. VERPLANCKE, M. HOLSTERS 137

Endoreduplication is essential for symbiotic cell differentiation in Medicago truncatula E. KONDOROSI, J.M. VINARDELL, E. FEDOROVA, A. CEBOLLA, F. ROUDIER, S. TARAYRE, G. HORVATH, K. FULOP, D. VAUBERT, A. KONDOROSI 142

Identification of trans-acting factors regulating nodule development

A.C. HANSEN, C. JOHANSSON, H. BUSK, A. JEPSEN, D. JENSEN, L. FRJ3MOHS,

E.O. JENSEN 146

Responses of Lotus japonicus to Nod factors

H.P. SPAINK, C.P. BRAS, M. GR0NLUND, P. VAN SPRONSEN, J. KIJNE, H.R.M. SCHLAMAN, A. ROUSSIS, S. WIJTING, J. STOUGAARD,

E. FLEMETAKIS, P. KATINAKIS 148

SECTION 6: SIGNALS IN THE SOIL

Chairs Comments: Signals in the soil

L. BARRAN 153

Catabolic and chemoreceptor genes and their role in rhizobial ecology

M.F. HYNES, C.K. YOST, I J. ORESNIK, A. GARCIA DE LOS SANTOS,

Characteristics and metabolic roles of biotin-dependent carboxylases in rhizobia

M.F. DUNN, G. ARAiZA, S. ENCARNACION, T.M. FINAN, J. MORA 158

Phosphorus is important in nodulation of actinorhizal plants and legumes

K. HUSS-DANELL, F. GENTILI, C. VALVERDE, L. WALL, A. WIKLUND 163

SECTION 7: PROTEINS IN REGULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

Chair's Comments: Proteins in regulation and development

The FixJ transcriptional activator: From structure to genome

L. FERRIÈRES, J. SCHUMACHER, B. TON-HOANG, J. FOURMENT,

A novel regulatory linkage between carbon metabolism and nitrogen assimilation in E. coli and related bacteria

Y.-P. WANG, Z.-X. TIAN, G. WU, M. BUCK, A. KOLB 175

Functional analysis of regulatory genes involved in Medicago truncatula nodule organogenesis

M. CRESPI, A. COMPLAINVILLE, D. CHINCHILLA, F. MERCHAN,

A. CAMP ALANS, C. BREDA, C. SOUSA, M. MEGIAS, E. DAX, S. WOLF,

A. KONDOROSI 179

Ferritin and iron management in legume plant development and nodulation

P.M. STRÓZYCKI, A. SK^PSKA, K. KOLACZKOWSKA-SZCZESNIAK,

E. SOBIESZCZUK, A.B. LEGOCKI 184

SECTION 8: STRESSES AND FACTORS LIMITING NITROGEN FIXATION

Antioxidant protection of legume root nodules

I. ITURBE-ORMAETXE, M.A. MATAMOROS, J.F. MORAN, J. RAMOS,

Role of reactive oxygen species in nodule development

D. HEROUART, E. BAUDOUIN, R. SANTOS, C. MATHIEU, S. SIGAUD,

A. JAMET, P. EVANS, P. FRENDO, G. VAN DE SYPE, M J. DAVIES,

B. HALLIWELL, D. TOUATI, A. PUPPO 196

Nickel sequestering and storage by Bradyrhizobium japonicum

Understanding acid tolerance in root nodule bacteria

M.J. DILWORTH, W.G. REEVE, R.P. TIWARI, A.I. VIVAS-MARFISI,

SECTION 9: REGULATION OF N2 FIXATION AND METABOLISM

Chair's Comments: Recent progress in the regulation of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen assimilation genes

C. ELMERICH 211

The network controlling symbiotic nitrogen fixation genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum H.M. FISCHER, M.A. SCIOTTI, H. HENNECKE 213

Role of NtcA in nitrogen control and heterocyst function in cyanobacteria

E. FLORES, A. VALLADARES, M.F. VÁZQUEZ-BERMÚDEZ, J. PAZ-YEPES,

P. BARRAILLÉ, S. PICOSSI, J.E. FRÍAS, A.M. MURO-PASTOR, A. HERRERO 218

Regulation of nitrogenase in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus

P.C. HALLENBECK, A.F. YAKUNIN, T. DREPPER, S. GROSS, B. MASEPOHL,

W.KLIPP 223

Role of the NifM in maturation of the Fe-protein of nitrogenase

N. GAVINI, L. PULAKAT 228

Bacterial ammonium transport proteins: Structure and function

Integration of nitrogen, carbon and redox status by the Azotobacter vinelandii NifL-NifA regulatory complex

R. LITTLE, S. PERRY, V. COLOMBO, F. REYES-RAMIREZ, R. DIXON 238

SECTION 10: NODULE METABOLISM_

Chair's Comments: Nodule metabolism: Overview

B.T. DRISCOLL 245

The pivotal role of malate in root nodule metabolism and legume growth

C.P. VANCE, B. BUCCIARELLI, J. SCHULZE, R.H. LITJENS, G.B. TREPP,

Sinorhizobium meliloti PHB cycle genetics

T.C. CHARLES 250

Alanine synthesis and secretion by Rhizobium leguminosarum

P.S. POOLE, E.M. LODWIG, D.A. ALLAWAY, A. BORDES 254

Assimilation of fixed-N in a ureide-forming symbiosis

C.A. ATKINS, P.P. THUMFORT 256

SECTION 11: ENDOPHYTIC/ASSOCIATIVE PLANT-MICROBE INTERACTIONS

Chair's Comments: Endophytic and associative plant-microbe interactions

C. KENNEDY 261

Isolation and characterization of diazotrophic endophytes from grasses and their effects on plant growth

P.J. RIGGS, R.L. MORITZ, M.K. CHELIUS, Y. DONG, A.L. INIGUEZ,

Interactions between endobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

P. BONFANTE, V. BIANCIOTTO, D. MINERDI 268

Nitrogen fixation and interactions with rice by Azoarcus sp. strain BH72

B. REINHOLD-HUREK, T. HUREK, D.E. MARTIN, A. SARKAR, S. WIESE 271

SECTION 12: COMMON THEMES IN SYMBIOSIS AND PATHOGENESIS

Chair's Comments: Extensin-like glycoproteins in the lumen of infection threads in pea root nodules

Nodule invasion and intracellular survival by Sinorhizobium meliloti

J. LLORET, L. BARRA, G.R. CAMPBELL, G.P. FERGUSON, K. LEVIER,

B.J. PELLOCK, T.Y. SHCHERBAN, C. BLANCO, G.C. WALKER 279

Fine tuning of nodulation by Rhizobia

N.M. BOUKLI, W.J. BROUGHTON, W.J. DEAKIN, H. KOBAYASHI, C. MARIE, X. PERRET, M. SAAD, P. SKORPIL 284

The type III secretion system of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110SPC4

A. KRAUSE, A. DOERFEL, C. SCHMID, H. HENNECKE, H. KRISHNAN,

M. GOTTFERT 288

Common themes in symbiosis and pathogenesis: The case of Brucella abortus

R.A. UGALDE 293

SECTION 13: NITRIFICATION, DENITRIFICATION AND THE NITROGEN CYCLE

Chair's Comments: The nitrogen cycle

D. WERNER, D. LNGENDAHL, E. TER HASEBORG, H. KREIBICH, P. VINUESA 297

Molecular biology of ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea

Diversity of dinitrogen fixing and denitrifying bacteria in soils assessed by molecular biological methods

Bradyrhizobium japonicum denitrification genes

S. MESA, L. VELASCO, M. GOTTFERT, E.J. BEDMAR, M.J. DELGADO 309

Activation of plant ureases: Bacteria revisited in green?

M. BACANAMWO, S.K. FREYERMUTH, J.M. PALACIOS, C.-P. WITTE,

J.C. POLACCO 314

SECTION 14: NOVEL APPLICATIONS IN NITROGEN FIXATION

Chair's Comments: Plant growth promotion in legumes and cereals by lumichrome, a rhizobial signal metabolite

Symbiotic and developmental mutants of white sweetclover (Melilotus alba desr.)

A.M. HIRSCH, M.R. LUM, R.S.N. KRUPP, W. YANG, T.A. LARUE 323

Rhizobial signals and control of plant growth

D.L. SMITH, B. PRITHIVIRAJ, F. ZHANG 327

Why do legume nodules evolve hydrogen gas?

SECTION 15: APPLIED ASPECTS OF NITROGEN FIXATION_

Chair's comments: Biological nitrogen fixation and sustainable agriculture

G. HERNÁNDEZ 339

Maximizing the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation in tropical legume crops

D.S. ANDRADE, M. HUNGRIA 341

Soybean N2 fixation and food security for smallholder farmers: A research-extension model for sub-Saharan Africa

S. MPEPEREKI, F. MAKONESE, K.E. GILLER 346

The importance of biological nitrogen fixation in cropping systems of industrialized countries

Limitations to biological nitrogen fixation as a renewable source of nitrogen for agriculture

M.B. PEOPLES, K.E. GILLER, D.F. HERRIDGE, J.K. VESSEY 356

POSTER PAPERS__

Abstracts of Posters presented at the meeting 361

AUTHOR INDEX 535

SUBJECT INDEX 545

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