We have used three approaches to the problem of acid tolerance:

(1) the creation of acid-sensitive mutants from acid-tolerant strains of S. meliloti WSM419 and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae WSM710, followed by the identification of the genes essential to acid tolerance;

(2) the use of promoterless gusA fusion strains to identify genes which are acid-regulated; and

(3) the use of proteomics to identify proteins whose expression is affected by either transient or long-term exposure to acid conditions.

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