References

J. 81, 419-424 Campbell CA et al. (1990) Publ. 1841, Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa, Canada Campbell CA et al. (1994) J. Environ. Qual. 23, 195-201 Biederbeck VO, Bouman OT (1994) Agron. J. 86, 543-549 Biederbeck VO (1996) In Proc. Soils and Crops Workshop, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Entz MH et al. (2001a) Agron. J. Entz MH et al. (2001b) Can. J. Plant Sci. 81, 351-354 Grace PR et al. (1995) J. Exper. Agric. 35, 857-864...

Application Of Tree Legume Rhizobia For Reforestation Program In Thailand Ii Biodiversity Of Tree Legume Rhizobia In

Kotepong2, A. Nuntagij2, N. Boonkerd1 1 School of Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand 2Soil Microbiology Research Group, Division of Soil Science, Department of Agriculture, Thailand Rhizobial strains from tree legumes were isolated from five varieties of native tree leguminous plants in all parts of Thailand, altogether with selected the highest N2-fixing efficiency strains. The 17 strains were isolated from Acacia...

Isolated FeMoCo Catalytic Reactivity In Nonprotein Surrounding Substrate And Inhibitor Interactions C2H2 N2 CO

Petrova Inst, of Problems of Chem. Phys., Russ. Acad. Sci., 142432, Chernogolovka, Russia To understand the mechanism of substrate reduction in the active site of nitrogenase the catalytic reactivity of the isolated FeMo-co with respect to C2H2, and or CO, and or N2 reduction in non-enzymatic surroundings (DMF, Eu Hg, PhSH) was investigated. The quality of the FeMo-co extracted (before and after catalytic reactions) was evaluated from its Fe Mo ratio and its...

Alfalfa Root Nodules and ROS

On the other hand, alfalfa responds to infection with Sinorhizobium meliloti by production of O2 and H2O2. O2 was detected in infection threads and in infected cells in nodules up to nine days old. H2O2 production was seen in walls and infection threads of infected cells (zone II). H2O2 was not found in the meristematic zone I and fixation zone III (Santos et al. 2001). Thus, alfalfa produces a prolonged oxidative burst in response to S. meliloti infection. This is reminiscent of the oxidative...

Characterization Of Defense Responses Of Sesbania Rostrata

Sam2, S. Satoshi1, M. Hiroki1, M. Yukihiro1, H. Marcelle2, 'Dept Global Agri. Sci., U. Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan 2Dept Plantengenetica, VIB, U. Gent, Gent, Belgium Sesbania rostrata is an annual, fast-growing legume from the Sahel region of West Africa and parts of Angora, Mozambique and Madagascar with tropical climates and flooded soils, where it engages in symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Azorhizobium caulinodans. Nitrogen-fixing nodules are formed at lateral root...

Nitrogen Fixation Genes and Electron Transfer

Two clusters containing nitrogen fixation genes have been cloned. The general organization is very similar to that of Azotobacter vinelandii. A cluster carries nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK), nijTY and nifNE (AJ313205). A second cluster carries nifLA and nifBQ (AJ307878). nifA is located 7 kb upstream of nifB. Inactivation of nifA, nifB, nifH and nifE led to a Nif negative phenotype while a nifY mutant remained Nif' . A second copy of nifY was found upstream of nifH as well as a set of...

Global Perspectives

Proceedings of the 13 International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation Hamilton, Ontario, Canada 2-7 July 2001 Turlough M. Finan, Mark R. O'Brian, David B. Layzell, J. Kevin Vessey and William Newton CABI Publishing is a division of CAB International CABI Publishing CAB International Wallingford CABI Publishing 10 E 40th Street Suite 3203 New York, NY 10016 USA Tel +44(0)1491 832111 Fax +44(0)1491 833508 Email cabi cabi.org Tel +1 212 481 7018 Fax +1 212 686 7993 CAB International 2002. All rights...

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by Cargill, Ltd. and the AAFC NSERC Research Partnership Program. ENDOPHYTIC COLONIZATION AND IN PLANTA-NITROGEN FIXATION BY HERBASPIRILL UM SP. ISOLATED FROM WILD RICE A. Elbeltagy1, K. Nishioka1, T. Sato1, H. Suzuki1, B. Ye1, T. Hamada2, T. Isawa1, institute of Genetic Ecology, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan 2Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi, Japan From surface-sterilized culms of wild and cultivated rice, we obtained 11 gram-negative isolates of...

Large Scale Genome Analysis Of Lotus Japonicus Mg20

Kato, E. Asamizu, S. Tabata Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan The progress in DNA sequencing technology has allowed us to perform systematic and comprehensive analysis of genetic information in a variety of organisms. The entire genomes of several higher eukaryotes including a flowering plant, Arahidopsis thaliana, have already been sequenced, and the complete lists of potential gene complements in its genome have...

Material and Methods

Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110spc4 is a spontaneous spectinomycin resistant mutant of USDA3Ibll0 and is referred to as wild type (wt) in this work. A136 is a mutant derivative of 110spc4 (Figure 1). Strain 149 has a uidA gene integrated into the chromosome downstream of the nod box promoter preceding tts A (Figure 1). For expression analyses, B. japonicum was grown in YEM medium to the stationary phase. Cells were resuspended in the same amount of fresh medium and genistein was added to a...

Results and Discussion

The B. japonicum 3Ilbl 10 nirK, norCBQD and nosRZDFXYL genes were identified using heterologous probes from Alcaligenes faecalis (Nishiyama et al. 1993), Paracoccus denitrificans (de Boer et al. 1996) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (Viebrock, Zumft 1987) encoding the Cu-containing respiratory nitrite reductase, nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively. The deduced primary sequence of nirK (EMBL, accession number AJ002516) has greater than 68 identity with translated sequences...

Endoreduplication Is Essential For Symbiotic Cell Differentiation In Medic Ago Truncatula

Fedorova, A. Cebolla, F. Roudier, S. Tarayre, G. Horvath, Institut des Sciences du Vegetal, CNRS UPR 2355, 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France 1. Introduction Plant organ development is a constant interplay between cell cycle and differentiation programs. Various stages of nodule development are controlled by differential regulation of the cell cycle. As a first step, the rhizobial Nod factors activate the cell cycle in the nodulation sensitive root zone. In Medicago...

Pl theoretical

Diagramatic representation of S. meliloti proteins capable of being analyzed by proteome analysis. The dots represent the theoretical pi and molecular weight of proteins predicted from the S. meliloti chromosome. The box represents the pi and molecular mass window that is capable of being examined by 2-DGE analysis. The procedures used to resolve, stain and quantify proteins in a gel are influenced by the experimental aims and by the type of post-gel analysis employed. Some of the...

Johanna Dbereiner Fifty Years Dedicated To The Biological Nitrogen Fixation Research Area

Reis Embrapa Agrobiolog a, BR465, Km47, 23851-970-Serop dica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Johanna D bereiner was born in the former Czechoslovakia in 1924, immigrated to Brazil in 1950 and became a Brazilian citizen by option in 1956. She was an extremely enthusiastic person in the field of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) which began, almost incidentally, when she was employed by the Research Department of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (nowadays Embrapa)...

Identification Of Indole3butyric Acid In Azospirillum Cultures

S nchez Ahedo 'Microbiological Research Center, University Autonomous of Puebla, Puebla, Pue. M xico 2Mexican Institute of Petroleum, M xico D.F. M xico Azospirillum is a metabolically versatile organism with the ability to associate with the agronomically important plants it produces several metabolites involved in beneficial effects to the plants for instance, for the production of phytohormones by the microorganism there is more than one pathway for the synthesis...

Importance of Urea Urease and Ni to Plants

Most or all plants have ureolytic activity (Hogan et al. 1982). To produce it they must deal with potentially toxic nickel (Ni), essential for an active urease. There are no other known plant Ni metalloenzymes (Gerend s et al. 1999) as opposed to six (urease, hydrogenase, CO dehydrogenase, methyl-CoM reductase, acetyl-CoA synthase and a superoxide dismutase) in bacteria (Ragsdale 1998). EST databases and mutational analysis of urease expression in soybean indicate that plants have specific...

Phytological Aspects Of Heavy Metal Toxicty In Clover Trifolium Alexandrinum

El-Toukhy, K.I.R. Badawy Bot. Dep. Women's College Ain Shams Univ., Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt Pollution Unit, Desert Research Center (DRC), Cairo, Egypt Studies were conducted to present evidence that nodulation, biomass, chlorophyll and metal content of a forage legume (clover) may serve for ecotoxicological evaluation of contaminated areas. Substances affecting the macro- and or microsymbionts, such as certain heavy metals were examined. The experiments were carried out...

Plants for Biological N Fixation

The main grain legumes in industrialized countries include soybean (Glycine max L.), pea (Pisum sativa L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), lupin and bean (Phaseolus spp.). The area dedicated to grain legume production has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Some of the more dramatic examples include lupin production in western Australia (117,939 ha in 1980 2,042,000 ha in 2000) and dry pea production in western Canada (49,300 ha in 1980 1,219,000 ha in 2000)...

Ammonia Oxidation Pathway

The oxidation of NH3 to NO2 is carried out in two steps (Figure 1) (Hooper, 1989). NH3 is first oxidized to hydroxylamine (NH2OH) by ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). NH2OH is subsequently oxidized to NO2 by hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO). In the reaction catalyzed by AMO, one O from O2 is inserted into NH3 while the second O is reduced to H2O. This reaction requires two additional electrons. Because NH3 is the only source of reductant for these bacteria, the electrons required for the formation...

Essential Genes actA

Mutations in this gene result in an inability to grow at pH 6 or to maintain intracellular pH (pH ) if the external pH (pHe) is less than 6.5 (O'Hara et al. 1989). The mutant (TG2-6) is also abnormally copper- and zinc-sensitive at pH 7.0, but removal of copper from the medium does not restore acid-sensitivity. Complementation resulting in restoration of acid tolerance also restores copper- and zinc-tolerance (Tiwari et al. 1996a). The deduced ActA protein sequence is suggestive of a membrane...

Signal Exchange During The Early Events Of Soybean Nodulation

Nod Genes Bradyrhizobium

Lee, C. Bickley, D. Lohar, G. Liao, G. Copley, Center for Legume Research, Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996-0845, USA 1. Regulation of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum Nodulation Genes The regulation of nod gene expression in several (Sino)Rhizobium Bradyrhizobium Azorhizobium species has been extensively studied. Current evidence shows that most nod genes are involved in the production of substituted lipo-chitin Nod...

Knockout Of An Azorhizobial dTdplrhamnose Synthase Affects Lipo And Exopolysaccharide Synthesis And Symbiosis With

De Rycke, M. Holsters Dept of Plant Genetics, V.I.B., K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium The micro-symbiont, Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, induces nitrogen-fixing nodules on both stem and roots of the tropical leguminous host plant, Sesbania rostrata. Besides azorhizobial lipochito-oligosaccharidic Nod factors (D'Haeze et al. 1998), surface polysaccharides (SPSs), comprising lipo- (LPSs), capsular (CPSs), and exopolysaccharides (EPSs), play a...

Alanine Synthesis And Secretion By Rhizobium Leguminosarum

Allaway, A. Bordes Division of Microbiology, School of AMS, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AJ, UK On the basis of 15N-labeling studies it had been generally accepted that ammonium is the sole secretion product of N2-fixation by the bacteroid and that the plant is responsible for assimilating it into amino acids. However, 15N-labeling studies indicated that soybean bacteroids only secrete alanine and not ammonia (Waters et al. 1998). We...

The Organization of the nif Operon

A DNA region containing putative nif genes and belonging to the endosymbiont Burkholderia has been identified and characterized (Minerdi et al. 2001). Screening of the library with Azospirillum brasilense nifHDK genes as the prokaryotic probes led to the identification of a 6413 bp region. Analysis revealed three open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins with a very high degree of sequence similarity with the two subunits (NifD and NifK) of the component I and with component II...

Application Of Tree Legume Rhizobia For Reforestation Programme In Thailand I Selection And Management Of Rhizobia For

Jitacksorn , N. Teaumroong , N. Boonkerd 'Soil Microbiology Research Group, Division of Soil Science, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand 2School of Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand Leguminous trees such as Acacia, Pterocartpus, and Leuceana have been recommended for reforesting in denuded and degraded lands in Thailand. These leguminous trees successfully compete with native grasses and adapted to adverse...

Construction Of A Microarray Covering The Sinorhizobium Meliloti1021 Genome

Weidner1, U.D. Schiller2, S. Kurtz2, R. Giegerich2, Lehrstuhl fur Genetik, Universit t Bielefeld, Germany 2AG Praktische Informatik, Technische Fakult t, Bielefeld, Germany Sequencing of the genome of the symbiotic soil bacterium S. meliloti 1021 was recently finished by an international consortium (Galibert et al. 2001). The genome consists of three replicons the 3.5 Mb chromosome, the 1.35 Mb megaplasmid pSymA and the 1.7 Mb megaplasmid pSymB. Annotation of...

Biofixation And Nitrogen In The Biosphere And In Global Food Production

Department of Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 Canada Meetings such as this one are triumphs of scientific reductionism. In this room, we have dozens of people who know more about some extremely specialized attribute of biofixation or bacterial and plant physiology than does anybody else on this planet of more than six billion people. As a counterweight to this restrictive attention, and following the tradition of keynote addresses (including some given at these biannual...

Response Of The Coffee Plant To The Inoculation With Azospirillum Sp

V zquez-Ch vez, A. Tapia-Hern ndez, M.A. Mascar a-Esparza, M. Rosas-Morales, L.E. Fuentes-Ram rez Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiol gicas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Aut noma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal 1622, CP 72000, Puebla, Pue., M xico The coffee plant is a crop that is cultivated in large areas of the tropics. It produces one of the greatest incomes of the non-developed countries. Competitive production of grain demands the application of large...

Endophytic Bacteria In Induced Root Nodules On Eggplant And Tomato

G-Laboratory, Beijing Liuhe Newstar Biological Technology Co. Ltd. Through optical microscopes, transmitting electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopes, the ultrastructure of and endophytic bacteria in artificially-induced nodules on the roots of eggplant (Solarium melongena L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), plants were observed and studied. The results show that a large number of nodules formed on the root system due to intrusion of autogenous azotobacters. Within the...

Chairs Comments Biological Nitrogen Fixation And Sustainable Agriculture

Biol., Cuernavaca, Morelos, M xico Nitrogen is the major limiting nutrient for most crop species. The acquisition and assimilation of nitrogen for plant growth and development is second in importance only to photosynthesis (Vance 1997). Biological nitrogen fixation constitutes the main natural input of nitrogen into the biosphere. This represents around 50 of the total fixed nitrogen, the other half is fixed through chemical processes. The chemical reduction...

Lipochitooligosaccharides and Controls on Crop Production

The chitin backbone of the LCO may cause it to act, in some way, like an elicitor in disease systems. LCO reduces salicylic acid levels in alfalfa roots, potentially aiding in suppression of legume host defense responses, and thereby ensuring successful infection (Martinez-Abarca et al. 1998). More recently, we have shown that a strong reduction in SA level in the leaf tissues occurred when soybean plants were sprayed with LCO (Prithiviraj et al. 2000b). Nod factors can alter phytoalexin...

Nitrogen Fixation Analysis Of The Genome Of The Cyanobacterium Nostoc Punctiforme

Elhai3, M. Potts4, F. Larimer5, J. Lamerdin6, P. Predki7, R. Atlas8 department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA 2Section of Microbiology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA department of Biology, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173, USA department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg,VA 24061, USA Computational Biology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA...

Expression Of The Direct Glucose Oxidative Pathway In Acetobacter Diazotrophicus

Boiardi CINDEFI, Facultad de Cs. Exactas UNLP -CONICET, Argentina A. diazotrophicus oxidizes glucose extracellularly to gluconate via a PQQ-linked glucose dehydrogenase GDH . This is considered the main route for glucose catabolism in this bacterium. Moreover, aldose oxidation through GDH allows N2-fixing A. diazotrophicus to direct the electron flux through a more efficient branch of its respiratory chain generating extra utilizable energy Luna et al. 2000 ....

Isolation And Characterization Of Diazotrophic Endophytes From Grasses And Their Effects On Plant Growth

Nitrogen Fixation Plants

Chelius, Y. Dong, A.L. Iniguez, S.M. Kaeppler, Dept of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA 1. Introduction The discovery of nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic endophytes in sugarcane by Dobereiner, Kennedy and coworkers for reviews see Boddey et al. 2000 Sevilla, Kennedy 2000 has encouraged several laboratories around the world to identify nitrogen-fixing associations between other grasses and bacteria. Here, we review our efforts to...

Dna Binding Properties Of RepA A Protein Involved In Partition And Autoregulation Of The Replicator Region Of The

Ram rez-Romero, M.A. Cevallos Centro de Investigaci n sobre Fijaci n de Nitr geno, A. P. A.P. 565-A., UNAM Cuernavaca, Morelos, M xico As a member of the repABC plasmid family, the replicator region of the R. etli symbiotic plasmid, contains three genes repA, repB and repC and a conserved region sequence between repB and repC Ram rez-Romero et al. 1997 . A genetic analysis of the repABC genes showed that they are organized in an operon. The repA and repB genes encode...