References

Aleksandrov, E.N., Vedeneev, V.I., Kozlov, S.N., Obvivalneva, A.A. and Pryakhin, G.A. (1990) Insertion of N(4S) atoms into the C-I bond in the reaction of N(4S) and CH3I. Bulletin of Academy of Sciences USSR Division of Chemical Sciences (Part 2) 39, 625-626.

Aliwell, S.R. and Jones, R.L. (1998) Measurements of tropospheric NO3 at midlatitude. Journal of Geophysical Research 103, 5719-5727.

Aloisi, G., Bouloubassi, I., Heijs, S.K., Pancost, R.D., Pierre, C., Damste, J.S.S., Gottschal, J.C., Forney, L.J. and Rouchy, J.M. (2002) CH4 consuming microorganisms and the formation of carbonate crusts at cold seeps. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 203, 1 95-203.

Atkinson, R., Bauch, D.L., Cox, R.A., Crowley, J.N., Hampson, R.F. Jr, Kerr, J.A., Rossi, M. J. and Troe, J. (2001) Summary of Evaluated Kinetic and Photochemical Data for Atmospheric Chemistry IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. Web Version December 2001, 1-56.

Baulch, D.L., Cobos, C.J., Cox, R.A., Esser, C., Frank, P., Just, Th., Kerr, J.A., Pilling, M. J., Troe, J., Walker, R.W. and Warnatz, J. (1992) Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 21, 411-429.

Baulch, D.L., Cobos, C. J., Cox, R.A., Frank, P., Hayman, G., Just, Th., Kerr, J.A., Murrells, T., Pilling, M.J., Troe, J., Walker, R.W. and Warnatz, J. (1994) Evaluated kinetic data for combustion modelling. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 23 (Suppl. 1), 847-1033.

Bekki, S., Law, K.S. and Pyle, J.A. (1994) Effect of ozone depletion on atmospheric CH4 and CO concentrations. Nature 3 71, 595-597.

Bergamaschi, P., Bräunlich, M., Marik, T. and Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. (2000) Measurements of the carbon and hydrogen isotopes of atmospheric methane at Izana, Tenerife: seasonal cycles and synoptic-scale variations. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 14531-14546.

Blake, D.R. and Rowland, F.R. (1988) Continuing world-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1987. Science 239, 1 129-1 131.

Boone, G.D., Agyin, F., Robichaud, D. J., Fu-Ming, T. and Hewitt, S.A. (2001) Rate constants for the reactions of chlorine with deuterated methanes: experiment and theory. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 105, 1456-1464.

Boyd, A.A., Conosa-Mas, C.E., King, A.D., Wayne, R.P. and Wilson, M.R. (1991) Use of a stopped-flow technique to measure the rate constants at room temperature for reactions between the nitrate radical and various organic species. Journal of Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 87, 2913-2919.

Brown, S.S., Stark, H., Ryerson, T.B., Williams, E. J., Nicks, D.K., Trainer, M., Fehsenfeld, F.C. and Ravishankara, A.R. (2003) Nitrogen oxides in the nocturnal boundary layer: simultaneous in situ measurements of NO3, N2O5, NO2, NO and O3. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, Art. No. 4299.

Cantrell, C.A., Davidson, J.A., Shetter, R.E., Anderson, B.A. and Calvert, J.G. (1987) Reactions of NO3 and N2O5 with molecular species of possible atmospheric interest. Journal of Physical Chemistry 91, 6017-6021.

Chameides, W.L., Liu, S.C. and Cicerone, R. J. (1977) Possible variations in atmospheric methane. Journal of Geophysical Research 82, 1795-1798.

Chase, M.W. Jr (1998) NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 4th edn. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Monograph 9, 1-1951.

DeMore, W.B., Sander, S.P., Golden, D.M., Hampson, R.F., Kurylo, M. J., Howard, C. J., Ravishankara, A.R., Kolb, C.E. and Molina, M. J. (1997) Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospherics Modelling. Evaluation number 12, JPL Publications, pp. 1-266.

Fletcher, S.E.M., Tans, P.P., Bruhwiler, L.M., Miller, J.B. and Heimann, M. (2004) CH4 sources estimated from atmospheric observations of CH4 and its C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios: Part 1. Inverse modelling of source processes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, Art. No. GB4004.

Gierczak, T., Talukdar, R.K., Herndon, S.C., Vaghjiani, G.L. and Ravishankara, A.R. (1997) Rate coefficients for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with methane and deuterated methanes. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 1 01, 3125-3134.

GLOBALVIEW (2005) Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project - Methane, Chapter 4. CD-ROM, NOAA/CMDL, Boulder, Colorado. Available via anonymous FTP to ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov at: ccg/ch4/GLOBALVIEW

Heard, D.E. and Pilling, M. J. (2003) Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere. Chemical Reviews 1 03, 5163-51 98.

Hopkins, J.R., Jones, I.D., Lewis, A.C., McQuaid, J.B. and Seakins, P.W. (2002) Non-methane hydrocarbons in the Arctic boundary layer. Atmospheric Environment 36, 321 7-3229.

IPCC (1996) Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Khalil, M.A.K. and Rasmussen, R.A. (1985) Causes of increasing atmospheric methane: depletion of hydroxyl radicals and the rise of emissions. Atmospheric Environment 19, 397-407.

Lary, D. J . and Shallcross, D.E. (2000) The central role of carbonyl compounds in atmospheric chemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 19771-19778.

Lary, D. J. and Toumi, R. (1997) Halogen catalysed methane oxidation. Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 23421-23428.

Lovelock, J.E. (1977) Methyl chloroform in the troposphere as an indicator of OH radical abundance. Nature 267, 32-33.

Lu, Y. and Khalil, M.A.K. (1991) Tropospheric OH: model calculations of spatial, temporal and secular variations. Chemosphere 23, 397-444.

Madronich, S, and Granier, C. (1992) Impact of recent total ozone changes on tropospheric ozone photoemission, hydroxyl radicals and methane trends. Geophysical Research Letters 19, 465-467.

Pancost, R.D., Damste, J.S.S., de Lint, S., van der Maarel, M. J .E.C. and Gottschal, J.C. (2000) Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archea and bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 1 126-1 132.

Pardini, S.P. and Martin, D.S. (1 983) Kinetics of the reaction between methane and iodine from 830 to 1150 K in the presence and absence of oxygen. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics 15, 1031-1043.

Pinto, J.P. and Khalil, M.A.K. (1991) The stability of tropospheric OH during ice ages, inter-glacial epochs and modern times. Tellus 43B, 347-352.

PORG (1997) Ozone in the United Kingdom. Fourth Report of the UK Photochemical Oxidants Review Group, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, London.

Prinn, R.G., Huang. J., Weiss, R.F., Cunnold, D.M., Fraser, P. J., Simmonds, P.G., McCulloch, A., Harth, C., Salameh, P., O'Doherty, S., Wang, R.H.J., Porter, L. and Miller, B.R. (2001) Evidence for substantial variations of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals in the past two decades. Science 292, 1882-1888.

Quay, P., Stutsman, J., Wilbur, D., Snover, A., Dlugokencky, E. and Brown, T. (1999) The isotopic composition of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13, 445-461.

Ravishankara, A.R. (1988) Kinetics of radical reactions in the atmospheric oxidation of CH4. Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 39, 367-394.

Russell, J. J., Seetula, J.A. and Gutman, D. (1988) Kinetics and thermochemistry of CH3, C2H5 and i-C3H7. Study of the equilibrium R + HBr ^ R-H + Br. Journal of American Chemical Society 1 10, 3092-3099.

Sander, R. (1999) Modeling atmospheric chemistry: interactions between gas-phase species and liquid cloud/ aerosol particles. Surveys in Geophysics 20, 1-31.

Saueressig, G., Crowley, J.N., Bergamaschi, P., Brühl, C., Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. and Fischer, H. (2001) Carbon 13 and D kinetic isotope effects i n the reactions of CH4 with O(1D) and OH: new laboratory measurements and their implications for the isotopic composition of stratospheric methane. Journal of Geophysical Research 1 06, 2312 7-231 38.

Slack, M.W. and Grillo, A.R. (1981) Shock tube investigations of methane - oxygen ignition sensitized by NO2. Combustion and Flame 40, 155-172.

Stedman, D.H. and Niki, H. (1973) Ozonolysis rates of some atmospheric gases. Environmental Letters 14, 303-31 0.

Steele, L.P., Dlugokencky, E.L., Lang, P.M., Tans, P.P., Martin, R.C. and Masarie, K.A. (1992) Slowing down of the global accumulation of atmospheric methane during the 1980s. Nature 358, 313-316.

Stutz, J., Alicke, B. and Ackermann, R. (2004) Vertical profiles of NO3, N2O5, O3, and NO, in the nocturnal boundary layer: Part 1. Observations during the Texas Air Quality Study 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D12306.

Sze, N.D. (1977) Atmospheric CO emissions: implications for the atmospheric CO-OH-CH4 cycle. Nature 195, 673-675.

Thompson, A.M. and Cicerone, R. J. (1986) Possible perturbations to atmospheric CO, CH4 and OH. Journal of Geophysical Research 91, 10853-10864.

Tsang, W. and Hampson, R.F. (1986) Chemical kinetic data base for combustion chemistry: Part 1. Methane and related compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 15, 1087-1279.

Wang, J.S., Logan, J.A., McElroy, M.B., Duncan, B.N., Megretskaia, I.A. and Yantosca, R.M. (2004) A 3-D model analysis of the slowdown and interannual variability in the methane growth rate from 1988 to 1997. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, Art. No. GB3011.

Warwick, N. J., Bekki, S., Law, K.S., Nisbet, E.G. and Pyle, J.A. (2002) The impact of meteorology on the interannual growth rate of atmospheric methane. Geophysical Research Letters 29, Art. No. 1947.

Wingenter, O.W., Sive, B.C., Blake, N. J., Blake, D.R. and Rowland, F.S. (2001) Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 222: U25.

World Meteorological Organization (2003) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2002. Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. Report No. 47, Geneva, p. 498.

Yamaguchi, Y., Teng, Y., Shimomura, S., Tabata, K. and Suzuki, E. (1999) Ab initio study for selective oxidation of methane with NO, (x = 1,2). Journal of Physical Chemistry A 103, 8272-8278.

Yung, Y.L. and DeMore, W.B. (1999) Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment