References

Anderson, I.C. and Poth, M.A. (1989) Semiannual losses of nitrogen as NO and N2O from unburned and burned chaparral. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 3, 121-135.

Appelo, C.A. J. and Postma, D. (1993) Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Bakken, L.R. and Bleken, M. (1998) Temporal aspects of N enrichment and emission of N2O to the atmosphere. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52, 107-121.

Batjes, N.H. (1997) A world dataset of derived soil properties by FAO-UNESCO soil unit for global modelling. Soil Use and Management 13, 9-16.

Batjes, N.H. (2002) Revised soil parameter estimates for the soil types of the world. Soil Use and Management 1 8, 232-235.

Betlach, M.R. and Tiedje, J.M. (1981) Kinetic explanation for accumulation of nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide during bacterial denitrification. Applied Environmental Microbiology 42, 1074-1084.

Blackmer, A.M. and Bremner, J.M. (1976) Potential of soil as a sink for atmospheric nitrous oxide. Geophysical Research Letters 3, 739-742.

Blackmer, A.M. and Bremner, J.M. (1978) Inhibitory effect of nitrate on reduction of N2O to N2 by soil microorganisms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 10, 187-191.

Blicher-Mathiesen, G. and Hoffmann, C. (1999) Denitrification as a sink for dissolved nitrous oxide in a freshwater riparian fen. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 257-262.

Bobbink, R., Hornung, M. and Roelofs, J.G.M. (1998) The effects of air-borne nitrogen pollutants on species diversity in natural and semi-natural European vegetation. Journal of Ecology 86, 71 7-738.

Bouwman, A.F., Boumans, L. J.M. and Batjes, N.H. (2002a) Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: summary of available measurement data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16(4), 1058.

Bouwman, A.F., Van Vuuren, D.P., Derwent, R.G. and Posch, M. (2002b) A global analysis of acidification and eutrophication of terrestrial ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 141, 349-382.

Bouwman, A.F., Van Drecht, G. and Van der Hoek, K.W. (2005) Nitrogen surface balances in intensive agricultural production systems in different world regions for the period 1970-2030. Pedosphere 15(2), 1 37-1 55.

Butterbach-Bahl, K., Gasche, R., Huber, C., Kreutzer, K. and Papen, H. (1998) Impact of N-input by wet deposition on N-trace gas fluxes and CH4-oxidation in spruce forest ecosystems of the temperate zone in Europe. Atmospheric Environment 32(3), 559-564.

Castro, M.S., Steudler, P.A., Melillo, J.M., Aber, J.D. and Millham, S. (1 993) Exchange of N2O and CH4 between the atmosphere and soils in spruce-fir forests in northeastern United States. Biogeochemistry 18, 119-135.

Cicerone, R. J. (1989) Analysis of sources and sinks of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Journal of Geophysical Research 94, 18265-18271.

Clemens, J., Vandre, R., Kaupenjohann, M. and Goldbach, H. (1997) Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions after landpreading of slurry as influenced by application technique and dry matter reduction. II. Short-term nitrous oxide emissions. Zeitschift für Planzenernährung und Bodenkunde 160, 491-496.

Conrad, R. and Dentener, F. J. (1999) The application of compensation point concepts in scaling of fluxes. In: Bouwman, A.F. (ed.) Scaling of Trace Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 205-216.

Conrad, R., Seiler, W. and Bunse, G. (1 983) Factors influencing the loss of fertilizer nitrogen in the atmosphere as N2O. Journal of Geophysical Research 88, 6709-6718.

Crews, T. (1999) The presence of nitrogen fixing legumes in terrestrial communities: evolutionary vs. ecological considerations. Biogeochemistry 46, 233-246.

Crutzen, P. J. (1970) The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 96, 320-325.

DeSimone, L.A. and Howes, B.L. (1998) Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: a mass balance approach. Water Resources Research 34, 271-285.

De Wilde, H. (1999) Nitrous oxide and methane in marine systems. PhD thesis, Groningen University, The Netherlands, ISBN 90-803470-3-5.

Dhondt, K., Boeckx, P., Hofman, G. and Van Cleemput, O. (2004) Temporal and spatial patterns of denitrifica-tion enzyme activity and nitrous oxide fluxes in three adjacent vegetated riparian buffer zones. Biology and Fertility of Soils 40(4), 243-251.

Firestone, M.K. and Davidson, E.A. (1989) Microbiological basis of NO and N2O production and consumption in soil. In: Andrae, M.O. and Schimel, D.S. (eds) Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 7-21.

Glatzel, S. and Stahr, K. (2001) Methane and nitrous oxide exchange in differently fertilised grassland in southern Germany. Plant and Soil 231, 21-35.

Goossens, A., Visscher, A.D., Boeckx, P. and Cleemput, O.V. (2001) Two-year study on the emission of N2O from coarse and middle-textured Belgian soils with different land use. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 60, 23-34.

Groffman, P.M., Gold, A. J. and Jacinthe, P.A. (1998) Nitrous oxide production in riparian zones and groundwater. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52, 179-186.

Hefting, M.M., Bobbink, R. and De Caluwe, H. (2003) Nitrous oxide emission and denitrification in chronically nitrate-loaded riparian buffer zones. Journal of Environmental Quality 32(4), 1 194-1203.

Hofstra, N. and Bouwman, A.F. (2005) Denitrification in agricultural soils: summarizing published data and estimating global annual rates. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 72, 267-2 78.

Jambert, C., Delmas, R.A., Labroue, L. and Chassin, P. (1994) Nitrogen compound emissions from fertilizer soils in a maize field pine tree forest agroecosystem in the southwest of France. Journal of Geophysical Research 99, 1 6523-1 6530.

Kilian, A., Gutser, R. and Claassen, N. (1998) N2O emissions following long-term fertilization at different levels. Agrobiological Research 51, 27-36.

Knowles, R., Lean, D.R.S. and Chan, Y.K. (1981) Nitrous oxide concentrations in lakes: variations with depth and time. Limnology and Oceanography 26, 855-866.

Kroeze, C., Mosier, A. and Bouwman, L. (1999) Closing the global N2O budget: a retrospective analysis 1500-1994. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13, 1-8.

Lapitan, R.L., Wanninkhof, R. and Mosier, A.R. (1999) Methods for stable gas flux determination in aquatic and terrestrial systems. In: Bouwman, A.F. (ed.) Approaches to Scaling of Trace Gas Fluxes in Ecosystems. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 31-66.

Maggiotto, S.R., Webb, J.A., Wagner Riddle, C. and Thurtell, G.W. (2000) Nitrous and nitrogen oxide emissions from turfgrass receiving different forms of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Environmental Quality 29(2), 621-630.

Mengis, M., Gachter, R. and Wehrli, R. (1997) Sources and sinks of nitrous oxide (N2O) in deep lakes. Biogeochemistry 38, 281-301.

Mosier, A., Kroeze, C., Nevison, C., Oenema, O., Seitzinger, S. and Van Cleemput, O. (1998) Closing the global atmospheric N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52, 225-248.

Papen, H., Hellmann, B., Papke, H. and Rennenberg, H. (1993) Emission of N-oxides from acid irrigated and limed soils of a coniferous forest in Bavaria. In: Oremland, R.S. (ed.) The Biochemistry of Global Change: RadiativelyActive Trace Gases. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 245-259.

Papen, H., Daum, M., Steinkamp, R. and Butterbach-Bahl, K. (2001) N2O and CH4-fluxes from soils of a N-limited and N-fertilized spruce forest ecosystem of the temperate zone. Journal of Applied Biology 75, 159-163.

Parkin, T.B. (1987) Soil microsites as a source of denitrification variability. Soil Science Society of America Journal 51, 1194-1199.

Parkin, T.B. (1990) Characterizing the variability of soil denitrification. FEMS Symposium on Federal European Microbiological Society, Madison, Wisconsin. Science Tech Publishers 56, 213-228.

Petersen, S.O. (1999) Nitrous oxide emissions from manure and inorganic fertilizers applied to spring barley. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 1610-1618.

Poth, M., Anderson, I.C., Miranda, H.S., Miranda, A.C. and Riggan, P. J. (1995) The magnitude and persistance of soil NOx, N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from burned tropical savanna in Brazil. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9, 503-51 3.

Rees, A.P., Owens, N.P. J. and Upstill-Goddard, R.C. (1997) Nitrous oxide in the Bellinghausen Sea and Drake Passage. Journal of Geophysical Research 1 02, 3383-3391.

Riley, R.H. and Vitousek, P.M. (2000) Hurricane effects on nitrogen trace gas emissions in Hawaiian montane rain forest. Biotropica 32(4a), 751-756.

Robertson, G.P. (1989) Nitrification and denitrification in humid tropical ecosystems: potential controls on nitrogen retention. In: Proctor, J. (ed.) Mineral Nutrients in Tropical Forest and Savanna Ecosystems. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 55-69.

Rolston, D.E., Sharpley, A.N., Toy, D.W. and Broadbent, F.E. (1982) Field measurement of denitrification: III. Rates during irrigation cycles. Soil Science Society of America Journal 46, 289-296.

Ryden, J.C. (1981) N2O exchange between a grassland soil and the atmosphere. Nature 292, 235-237.

Ryden, J.C. (1983) Denitrification loss from a grassland soil in the field receiving different rates of nitrogen as ammonium nitrate. Journal of Soil Science 1 983, 355-365.

Serca, D., Delmas, R., Jambert, C. and Labroue, L. (1994) Emissions of nitrogen oxides from equatorial rain forest in central Africa. Tellus 46B, 243-254.

Sexstone, A. J., Parkin, T.B. and Tiedje, J.M. (1985) Temporal response of soil denitrification rates to rainfall and irrigation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 49, 99-103.

Simek, M. and Cooper, J.E. (2002) The influence of soil pH on denitrification: progress towards the understanding of this interaction over the last 50 years. European Journal of Soil Science 53, 345-354.

Skiba, U., Sheppard, L.J., MacDonald, J. and Fowler, D. (1998) Some key environmental variables controlling nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields and semi-natural soils in Scotland. Atmospheric Environment 32, 331 1-3320.

Skiba, U., Sheppard, L.J., Pitcairn, C.E.R., Van Dijk, S. and Rossall, M. J. (1999) The effect of N deposition on nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from temperate forest soils. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 116, 89-98.

Slemr, F., Conrad, R. and Seiler, W. (1984) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized and unfertilized soils in a subtropical region (Andalusia, Spain). Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 1, 159-169.

Sprent, J.I. (1999) Nitrogen fixation and growth of non-crop legume species in diverse environments. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 2/2, 149-162.

Tiedje, J.M. (1988) Ecology of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. In: Zehnder, A.J.B. (ed.) Biology of Anaerobic Microorganisms. Wiley, New York, pp. 1 79-244.

Van Drecht, G., Bouwman, A.F., Knoop, J.M., Beusen, A.H.W. and Meinardi, C.R. (2003) Global modeling of the fate of nitrogen from point and nonpoint sources in soils, groundwater and surface water. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(4), 1115.

Van Kessel, C., Pennock, D. J. and Farrell, R.E. (1 993) Seasonal variations in denitrification and nitrous oxide evolution at the landscape scale. Soil Science Society of America Journal 57, 988-995.

Verchot, L.V., Davidson, E.A., Cattanio, J.H., Ackerman, I.L., Erikson, H.E. and Keller, M. (1999) Land use change and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen oxide emissions from soils in eastern Amazonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13, 31-46.

Vidon, P. and Hill, A.R. (2004) Denitrification and patterns of electron donors and acceptors in eight riparian zones with contrasting hydrogeology. Biogeochemistry 71, 259-283.

Wagner-Riddle, C., Thurtell, G.W., Kidd, G.K., Beauchamp, E.G. and Sweetman, R. (1997) Estimates of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural fields over 28 months. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 77, 135-144.

Xu, H., Guangxi, X., Cai, Z.C. and Tsuruta, H. (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions from three paddy fields in China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 49, 23-28.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment