Contents

Contributors vii

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xv

1 Carbon Dioxide: Importance, Sources and Sinks 1

David S. Reay and John Grace

2 Terrestrial Vegetation as a Carbon Dioxide Sink 11

Graham Hymus and Riccardo Valentini

3 The Oceanic Sink for Carbon Dioxide 31

Christopher L. Sabine and Richard A. Feely

4 The Soil Carbon Dioxide Sink 50

Pete Smith and Phil Ineson

5 Implications for Increasing the Soil Carbon Store: Calculating the Net Greenhouse Gas Balance of No-till Farming 58

Reynald L. Lemke and H. Henry Janzen

6 Geological Carbon Sinks 74

Andy Ridgwell and Ursula Edwards

7 Artificial Carbon Sinks: Utilization of Carbon Dioxide for the Synthesis of Chemicals and Technological Applications 98

Michele Aresta and Angela Dibenedetto

8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas

Emissions Trading Systems 115

John Reilly, Benjamin Felzer, David Kicklighter, Jerry Melillo, Hanqin Tian and Malcolm Asadoorian

9 Methane: Importance, Sources and Sinks 143

David S. Reay, Keith A. Smith and C. Nick Hewitt

10 The Soil Methane Sink 152

Peter F. Dunfield

11 The Atmospheric Methane Sink 171

Dudley E. Shallcross, M. Aslam K. Khalil and Christopher L. Butenhoff

12 Artificial Methane Sinks 184

Alex De Visscher, Pascal Boeckx and Oswald Van Cleemput

13 Nitrous Oxide: Importance, Sources and Sinks 201

David S. Reay, C. Nick Hewitt and Keith A. Smith

14 Stratospheric Sinks of Nitrous Oxide 207

Christopher L. Butenhoff and M. Aslam K. Khalil

15 Sinks for Nitrous Oxide at the Earth's Surface 227

Carolien Kroeze, Lex Bouwman and Caroline P. Slomp

16 Cross-cutting Issues and New Directions 243

David S. Reay

17 Impact of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on the Exchange of

Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide and Methane from European Forests 249

Wim de Vries, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Hugo Denier van der Gon and Oene Oenema

Index

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