Calcium carbonate Calcium bicarbonate Calcium hydroxide n-propanol i-propanol Stearic acid Ethanol

Isopropyl alcohol Acetone Ethyl acetate t-propanol Glucose Acetic acid Methylamine Aminoethanol Methanol Cellular material Chloride ion Carbon dioxide Carbonate





















OCl3 OH3


SO2 SO42-

Carboxylic acid (carboxyl) group

Copper sulfate


Hydrogen ion

Bicarbonate ion

Carbonic acid

Mercuric chloride

Nitrous acid

Hypochlorous acid

Magnesium carbonate

Magnesium bicarbonate

Magnesium hydroxide


Molecular nitrogen Amino group Ammonia Ammonium ion Urea

Ammonium bicarbonate Hydroxylamine Aqua ammonia Nitric oxide Nitrous oxide Nitrite ion Nitrate ion Nitroxyl

Sodium carbonate

Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bisulfite

Sodium hydroxide

Free molecular (dissolved) oxygen

Hypochlorite ion

Hydroxyl ion


Thiol group

Sulfur dioxide

Sulfate absorb Penetration of a substance into the body of an organism acclimate Gradual repair or replacement of enzymes damaged by inhibitory compounds actinomycete Filamentous bacteria, moldlike bacteria acute Having a sudden onset and short course adsorb The taking up of one substance at the surface of an organism aerobic The use of free molecular oxygen for cellular respiration aggregate Crowded or massed into a dense cluster alkalinity Having a pH greater than 7 alkalis Chemical compound that releases alkalinity in water allyl alcohol 1-hydroxy prop-2-ene, H2C=CHCH2OH, an unsatu-rated primary alcohol, present in wood spirit, made from glycerin and oxalic acid amino acid A group of organic acids in which a hydrogen atom of the hydrocarbon (alkyl) radical is exchanged for the amino group; used in the production of proteins ammonification The release of amino groups or ammonia from organic-nitrogen compounds by microbial activity anaerobic An environment where free molecular oxygen is not used by bacteria for the degradation of substrate analine Phenylamine, C6H5NH2, a colorless oily liquid that is slightly soluble in water; basis for the manufacture of dyestuffs, pharmaceutical, plastic, and many other products Angstrom Named for Swedish physicist, A. J. Angstrom (1814— 1874); unit of wavelength for electromagnetic radiation covering visible light and X rays; equal to 10~10 m. anoxic An environment where bacteria use nitrite ions or nitrate ions aqueous Relating to or made with water asexual Without sex, lacking, or apparently lacking functional sexual organs assimilatory A general term for all the metabolic processes that permit the buildup of nutrients utilized by organisms atom The smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction bacillus A rod-shaped bacterium or a genus in the family Bacilla-ceae bactericide A substance capable of killing bacteria binary fission A process in which two similarly sized and shaped cells are formed by the division of one cell; process by which most bacteria reproduce bioaugmentation The addition of commercially prepared cultures of organotrophs and nitrifying bacteria to a wastewater treatment process to improve operational conditions biochemical A chemical reaction occurring inside a living cell biological holdfast A series of lacelike threads providing fixed film, bacterial growth that is immersed in a suspended growth system or activated sludge process biomass The quantity or weight of all organisms within the treatment process biosynthetic pathway A series of biochemical reactions resulting in the production of complex molecules in an organism brackish water Water having less salt than seawater, but undrinkable bristleworm An aerobic, multicellular, segmented worm with very stiff, erect hairs budding A form of asexual reproduction in which a daughter cell develops from a small outgrowth or protrusion of the parent cell; the daughter cell is smaller than the parent cell cationic A compound or material having a net positive charge cellulose A polysaccharide consisting of numerous glucose molecules linked together to form an insoluble starch chelating agent An organic compound in which atoms form more than one coordinate bond with metals in solution chloramine A compound containing chlorine that is substituted for hydrogen; used in the disinfection of potable water supplies chlorinated hydrocarbon An organic compound having chlorine substituted for at least one hydrogen atom chronic Long term or duration ciliated protozoa Single-celled organism having short, hairlike structures or cilia coccus A spherical-shaped bacterium coliform Gram-negative, lactose-fermenting, enteric rod-shaped bacteria, such as Escherichia coli colloid Suspended solid with a large surface area that cannot be removed by sedimentation alone colorimetric The use of an instrument for the precise measurement of the hue, purity, and brightness of a color cytomembrane Internal membrane found immediately beneath the cell membrane of nitrifying bacteria; the active site for the oxidation of ammonium ions and nitrite ions deaminase Enzyme specific for the removal of amino groups through bacterial activity deaminate The release of amino groups through microbial activity degrade The use of enzymes to breakdown or oxidize BOD resulting in the release of energy to bacterial cells diffusion The spatial equalization of one material throughout another disinfectant An agent that kills or causes a reduction in number of pathogens in wastewater dissociate The reversible or temporary breaking-down of a molecule into simpler molecules or atoms dissimilatory The reduction of nitrite ions or nitrate ions to molecular nitrogen for the degradation of cBOD electron A fundamental particle with negative charge; electrons are grouped round the nuclei of atoms in several possible orbits endogenous The degradation of internal reserve substrate enumerate To count enzyme A proteinaceous molecule found inside a cell or released by a cell that expedites the rate of a biochemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction exoenzyme An enzyme produced within the cell and released to the environment; numerous exoenzymes solublize pBOD and coBOD that come in contact with the cell fermentation A mode of energy-yielding metabolism that involves a sequence of oxidation-reduction reactions of two organic compounds filtrate The liquid and its contents that pass through filter paper flatworm An aerobic, multicellular ''flat'' worm having a flat ventral surface and a curved dorsal surface food chain Scheme of feeding relationships by trophic levels, which unites the member species of a biological community food web An interrelationship among organisms in which energy is transferred from one organism to another; each organism consumes the preceding one and in turn is eaten by the following member in the sequence free-living Living or moving independently fungus A member of a diverse group of unicellular and multicellular organisms, lacking chlorophyll and usually bearing spores and often filaments generation time The time required for the cell population or biomass to double genetic material Nucleic materials passed from the parent cell to the daughter cell that contains the code or ''instructions'' related to the future characteristics and development of the daughter cell genus A taxonomic or classification group of organisms above the species level that share many similar features habitat The part of the physical environment in which an organism lives heavy metal A metal that can be precipitated by hydrogen sulfide in an acid solution and that may be toxic to the activated sludge biomass hydantoin Diketotetrahydroglyoxaline, CH2NH(CO)2NH, a naturally occurring carbon- and nitrogen-containing ring compound produced from the degradation of proteins hydrolysis The biochemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a chemical bond and the addition of water infiltration Groundwater that enters the sewer system through cracks in laterals, mains, and manholes inflow Strom water that enters the sewer system through catch basins and downspouts inhibition The act of repressing enzymatic activity inorganic Compounds that do not contain the elements carbon or hydrogen intermediate The precursor to a desired product lysis To break open; namely upon the death of bacterial cells, the content of the cells is released to the environment mercaptan Thio-alcohols; contain -SH; they form salts with sodium, potassium, and mercury, and are formed by warming alkyl halides or sulfates with potassium hydrosulfide in concentrated alcoholic or aqueous solution metabolism Pertaining to cellular activity, such as the degradation of BOD

metal salt A coagulant, such as alum, ferric chloride, or lime, used for solids capture, dewatering, or thickening micron Measure of length equal to one millionth of a meter or one thousandth of a milliliter molecule Smallest part of a compound that exhibits all the chemical properties of that specific compound multicellular Many cells nanometer A measurement of length; one thousandth of a micron nematode Any member of a group of nonsegmented worms nitrogenase Enzyme specific for the breaking of the triple bond in molecular nitrogen nodule A small rounded structure on the root of a plant inhabited by symbiotic bacteria nucleic acid A large, acidic, chainlike macromolecule containing phosphoric acid, sugar, and purine and pyrimidine bases obligate Required oxic An environment where bacteria use free molecular oxygen oxidation The biological or chemical addition of oxygen to a compound oxidation state The number of electrons that must be added to a cation or removed from an anion to produce a normal atom particulate Insoluble material that may or may not be biodegradable pathogen A disease-causing agent pepidogylcan The rigid component of the cell wall in most bacteria, consisting of a gylcan (sugar) backbone peripheral Situated or produced around the edge phenol Carbolic acid, C6H5OH, chief constituent of coal-tar photosynthetic The process in which radiant (light) energy is adsorbed by specialized pigments of a cell and is subsequently converted to chemical energy physiological Pertaining to the functions of living organisms and their physiochemical parts and metabolic reactions polyphosphate Inorganic compound in which two or more phosphorus atoms are joined together by oxygen potable water Drinking water supply protein A class of high molecular weight polymers composed of amino acids joined by peptide linkages reduction The addition of electrons from a compound; the removal of oxygen respiration A mode of energy-yielding metabolism that requires a final electron carrier for substrate oxidation redox The measurement of the amount of oxidized compounds and reduced compounds in an environment respiration A mode of energy-yielding metabolism that requires a final electron carrier for substrate oxidation rotifer An aerobic, multicellular, nonsegmented animal having two bands of cilia surrounding a mouth opening; the cilia provide locomotion and a mechanism for gathering food, such as dispersed bacteria selective agar A dried mucilaginous substance with marked gel-forming properties obtained from oriental seaweed, used in the preparation of various media for the culture of specific bacteria skatol 3-methylindole; possess a foul odor slug discharge Usually two and one-half or three times the normal or expected loading, such as BOD soluble In solution substrate Food or BOD supernatant The liquid above settled solids symbiotic An obligatory interactive association between members of two populations, producing a stable condition in which the two organisms live together in close physical proximity, to their mutual benefit thiourea Thiocarbamide, NH2CSNH2; it is slightly soluble in water, ethanol, and ethoxyethane; used in organic synthesis and as a reagent for bismuth total kjeldahl nitrogen The amount of ammonia and organic nitrogen within a wastewater sample unicellular One cell urease Enzyme specific for the degradation or urea ultraviolet radiation Short wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation in the range of 100 to 400 nm valence Oxidation state or charge waterbear An aerobic, multicellular, invertebrate having four pair of legs with claws xenobiotic A synthetic product that is not formed by natural bio-synthetic processes; a foreign substance or poison

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