The Role of Power in Negotiation

20 Negotiation Tactics

This 70 minute video gives you access to a whole new world of negotiation techniques that you probably have never thought of before. You will learn the psychology of how people make choices, and how you can leverage those choices into your advantage in a negotiation setting. All of these tips were chosen because of how widely they can be applied to all kinds of situations. You will also get 50 real-life examples to use in your own negotiations, so that you can learn to never be taken advantage of. All we need is 70 minutes of your time, and we can have you negotiating like a pro, to be able to have people see your way, no matter what you're proposing. All of these tactics can be applied in many different settings, such as asking for a raise, getting a job, or even winning an argument! All these tactics can change how people view you, and give yourself authority! Read more...

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Overview The Ozone Depletion Negotiations Of 19861990

Most analyses of the ozone negotiations have been critically concerned with cooperation and effectiveness.1 These studies examine the interests, power, and behavior of the major actors (both sovereignty free and sovereignty bound),2 assess the impact of scientific knowledge, and investigate the structure of the negotiations themselves searching for the factor(s) that led to successful cooperation and or effectiveness. In contrast, the main thrust of this book explains the conditions for cooperation the foundations for the governance of both ozone depletion and climate change. I am thus more concerned with exploring how certain fundamental ideas about participation arose and were internalized in the United States than I am with the substantive issues of addressing ozone depletion or cooperation. I explore how the underlying intersubjective understanding of the problems evolved. Therefore, I focus on two connected stories about participation in the ozone depletion negotiations the...

Hie Ozone Depletion Negotiations and Universal Participation

Universal participation was a normative position internalized before the climate change negotiations began. Positive reinforcement of the universal participation rule after the London Amendment negotiations led to its use in the next global environmental problem to arise there was a stable, low complexity social context as all states understood that the appropriate rule to follow was the universal participation norm. The experience of the ozone depletion negotiations and the rule model alterations that the United States underwent because of them shaped U.S. climate change activities. This is in line with the expectations of the NLC CAS framework and the model. This final link warrants further attention. It is likely impossible to show a definitive link between ozone depletion and climate change (ruling out all other possibilities for the source of the U.S. commitment to universal participation), and the context of climate change did not solely consist of the ozone depletion...

Country Negotiating Positions Explained

From the beginning of negotiations the US, Japan, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Norway were the main proponents of LULUCF. The results suggest that their proactive position was driven by the prospect of lowering their compliance costs. The failure of the EU to support forestry's inclusion can be explained by the fact that it wanted to display a leadership role in terms of the perceived problems of LULUCF, together with a lack of strong interest groups lobbying for its inclusion.5 The resistance of Eastern European countries and Russia is explained by fear that the inclusion of LULUCF would devalue the credits that they were left with after their caps under the Kyoto Protocol exceeded their current emissions.

Post Kyoto Negotiations

As mentioned in Section 4 the Kyoto protocol will expire in 2012. Therefore at the conference of signatory states to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bali in 2007, an official start was made to negotiations to draft a new climate protocol which follows the Kyoto Protocol and to adopt the new protocol at the conference of signatory states in Copenhagen in 2009. The key negotiation blocks are

Preface Tomorrow Is Today

Increasingly, climate change policy is being recognized and addressed across the entire multilateral framework. It is no longer the sole province of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) yet there remains a vast amount of work to fully mainstream climate change within the multilateral system. Indeed, the peace and security implications of climate change are only just beginning to be acknowledged. This book started out as a contribution to the preparations for the Poznan UNFCCC meeting in 2008. As the authors took stock of the landscape, they felt that it was more important to be seen outside of the UNFCCC meetings. The issues raised in this book are broader than those that are going to be addressed in the climate change negotiations.

A working definition of regimes

The focus on a specific issue area in Krasner's definition of regimes poses a problem. For one, with an increasing interlinking of international governance related to many different issues, it can become precarious to define the issue area. For example, what does the current global climate regime include when there are different parties and different norms when looking at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a whole and the Kyoto Protocol How do the structures of the IPCC relate to the political negotiations in the UNFCCC There are also questions about how the climate regime (or the different parts of it) relates to the global trade re-gime 41 As issue areas are the results of how questions are framed and therefore are the result of social processes, I prefer to leave the question of issue area open to analysis. This also creates better opportunities for analyzing the interplay among regimes, includ

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends

International negotiations and domestic policy debates have focused largely on reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, both because these emissions account for a large fraction of total GHG emissions and because they can be estimated fairly accurately based on fuel-use data. This report follows suit by focusing primarily on energy-related CO2 emissions. It is important to recognize, however, that there are other important sources of CO2 (such as tropical deforestation), and there are other compounds in the atmosphere that affect the earth's radiative balance and thus play a role in climate change. This includes long-lived GHGs such as methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated compounds (which arise from a variety of human activities including agriculture and industrial activities). It also includes shorter-lived gases that are precursors to tropospheric ozone (which directly affects human health, in addition to influencing climate), and a variety of aerosols that can exert either...

Initial Conditions A Northonly Global Response

The stories of the normative context and U.S. rule models are the empirical target for the NLC framework. This discussion cuts in to the dynamic process of coevolution (between U.S. rule models and the normative context) in 1986.5 By 1986 ozone depletion had been on the international political agenda for five years and the international scientific agenda for ten. In March 1985, twenty-one states originally signed the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The Vienna Convention is a framework convention that outlined the international community's understanding that ozone depletion was a problem and erected the infrastructure for dealing with the problem in the years to come. Embedded in the convention is a call to negotiate specific protocols for reducing ozone-depleting chemicals.6 These protocol negotiations took place in four official rounds between 1986 and 1987 (Geneva 12 86 , Vienna 2 87 , Geneva 4 87 , and Montreal 9 87 ) and culminated in the adoption of the...

Global Climate Change

Most academics, policymakers, and scientists uncritically acknowledge that the climate change problem requires a universal solution. I am not convinced that such an underlying understanding had to arise in the late 1980s and early 1990s given only the characteristics of the problem or the strategic interests of the parties involved. I seek to explain the assumed need for universal participation, and I reiterate the argument that referring to the scientifically defined characteristics of the issue or relying on rational choice are both insufficient. Evolving political and normative conceptions generated in the ozone depletion negotiations determined what the global response to climate change would be, not the unadorned characteristics of the problem.

Efficiency Alone The Neoclassical Perspective

A principal objective of the multilateral negotiations is to determine the norms for using the atmosphere, a global common. In a celebrated paper, Coase (1960) cogently argued that, in the absence of transaction costs, the market exchange would lead to efficient resource allocation regardless of the distribution of rights. The neoclassical economic interpretation of Coase's argument, theoretically articulated as the Coase theorem,'' leads to the conclusion that free markets would minimize total costs, including economic and social costs. The corollary of the proof is that equity is immaterial to socially optimal arrangements (or, alternatively, that market efficiency and equity are separate issues). To neoclassical economics, then, market efficiency alone is relevant and equity is irrelevant. This perspective gained ground over the past decade with emergence of the new world economic order. Under its influence, the climate debate remained restricted to the agenda to develop a...

Engaging Developing Countries Alternate Approaches

The vital questions before the climate negotiators are not whether developing countries should mitigate or how much they should mitigate but, rather, who would pay for mitigation actions and how to ensure that mitigation actions would not hamper the achievement of development goals. The former questions belong to the domain of efficiency and the latter to that of equity.

Universal Participation and the Development of US Stalling Strategies

Before the formal negotiations convened in 1991, the consequences of the U.S. understanding of climate change as a requiring a universal response The United States stonewalled any calls for binding emission reductions. The United States stood virtually alone among Northern states through most of the FCCC negotiations in its stance against binding targets. U.S. refusal to consider binding emissions raised suspicions in the South that the North-first principle enshrined in the governance of ozone depletion was at risk. This suspicion was enhanced by U.S. hinting that a global response entailed universal commitments (i.e., that the South should take on responsibilities as well), not just universal participation in the negotiations. The United States began to frame universal participation as meaning shared responsibility, in contrast to the North-first understanding inherited from ozone depletion. This hinting was a foreshadowing of the transition in universal participation to come in the...

Global policy dynamics took precedence

The ACIA also illustrates some potential limitations of regional arenas in relation to global climate policy and knowledge production. Specifically, the ACIA policy process showed that international regional discussions of climate change are likely to be colored by the global policy dynamics. In this case, the Nordic countries used the process to try to push their agenda for stronger control of greenhouse gas emissions by using the new knowledge base to strengthen their argument about the need for action. The United States, on the other hand, tried to distance itself from this new scientific base in order to not reconsider its previous climate policy stands. In this vertical interplay among regimes, the well established global regime took prominence over the regional one. Even if there was a policy document that acknowledged the implications of the ACIA and called for measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, it did not go further than commitments already made in the global...

History Of Harvest Management

That agreement covered only a portion of the salmon runs jointly exploited by the United States and Canada. When negotiations for the Pacific Salmon Treaty began in 1971, Alaskan interceptions of salmon spawned in the rivers of Washington and Oregon were creating tensions among the states, while increasing Canadian troll harvests of those stocks precluded an effective internal solution. In addition, mutual interceptions of salmon of Canadian and Alaskan origin were seen as a barrier to effective management in the northern area (Yanagida, 1987). At the same time, the Canadians had become increasingly unhappy about their agreement to share one half of the Fraser River salmon with the United States because, by foregoing construction of hydropower dams on the Fraser, Canada was effectively bearing more than half of the cost of maintaining those runs. Afier 14 years of negotiations, the treaty went into effect in 1985. In addition, the regimes were effective for only a few years....

Time to Move On A Longer Term Perspective

Divisive 1998 conference in Buenos Aires held one year after Kyoto, governments submitted a list of no less than 142 topics for which further negotiation was considered necessary Following another inconclusive major conference in Bonn in 1999, several thousand delegates from 182 nations met in November, 2000, in Den Haag for two more weeks of intensive negotiations. The result was a complete failure to reach the hoped-for agreements on implementing the treaty. Can the climate negotiations be reinvigorated As a start, an at-titudinal change would be helpful. Governments and NGOs could turn down the emotional thermostat and stop reacting to every variation in the weather. We could ignore the apocalyptic warnings that emerge after every heat wave and hurricane, as well as the scientific revelations (invariably already well known to the afficionados) that one or another research institute conveniently releases to the media on the eve of every negotiating session. It would be more candid...

The future of methane and climate change

For human activities, it is apparent that there exist myriad opportunities for improved mitigation of CH4 emissions in the coming years and decades. Van Amstel (2005, 2009) has conducted an integrated analysis of the impacts on 21st-century climate change that result from a scenario of unabated versus abated emissions of CH4. The analysis was based on model runs by the IMAGE integrated assessment model. In the IMAGE model, a set of scenarios was developed in close cooperation with the IPCC to assist the climate negotiations for the Kyoto Protocol. The IMAGE model was used because it included information on major processes that determine uncertainties that are not included in other models. The analysis showed that CH4 emissions could be reduced in the future at relatively low cost, while still playing a significant role

A3 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry Gpglulucf

GPG-LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) elaborated on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines to adopt an approach based on land-use categories for organizing the methodologies and good practices associated with estimating emissions and removals in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Sector, including Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements and Other Land. Each land category was further sub-divided into land remaining in the same category (e.g., Forest Land Remaining Forest Land) or land converted to another land category (e.g., Grassland converted to Forest Land). Methods for estimating carbon stock changes associated with harvested wood products (HWP) were included as an appendix, reflecting the unresolved issues and ongoing negotiations of including HWP in national inventories. As with GPG2000, GPG-LULUCF adopted the hierarchical Tier approach for methods descriptions, as well as the concept of key source categories, and similarly included guidance on quality assurance quality...

Buying our way out of trouble

Other entrepreneurs embraced the idea of offsets as a win-win opportunity to promote conservation and make money at the same time. The climate dimension was secondary. Their natural allies were groups working on forestry issues, such as Global Canopy, that were seeking new revenue streams for their work on forest conservation. Individual entrepreneurs also saw an opening. Dorjee Sun, for example, founder and head of Carbon Conservation spent many years trailing around Indonesia trying to persuade governors to guarantee forest protection in exchange for investments from carbon buyers.4 Despite meeting scepticism from the likes of Starbucks and failed attempts to persuade E-bay to set up virtual trading places, he eventually succeeded in forming a carbon-credits-for-forests partnership with Merrill Lynch.5 The calculation was that credits bought now will be more valuable in the future, especially if UN negotiators could be persuaded to include Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and...

Methodology For Impact Assessment Of Climate Change Scenarios

At the same time, concerns raised by atmospheric scientists about greenhouse gas emissions has led to international negotiations to establish a global strategy to reduce emissions. The main policy instrument, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been ratified by more than 150 countries, and the emission targets for six greenhouse gases have been tentatively established for more than 30 industrialized countries by a recent agreement known as the Kyoto Protocol (negotiated in December, 1997, but not yet ratified). Critics of this agreement have argued that these targets will cause severe economic losses to most of these countries because, in their view, economic growth is directly linked to growth in energy consumption and hence increased greenhouse gas emissions. Two other concerns are raised as well (a) global warming may not happen as predicted since there are uncertainties in climate models and their projections may be wrong, and (b) since societies...

Post Stockholm politics UNEP and the case of ozone depletion

Threats to Earth's ozone layer had previously been connected to the development of supersonic transport, but in 1974 Mario Molina and Sherry Rowland put forward a hypothesis that stable, non-toxic chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy ozone. This started what has been called an ozone war between environmentalists and the industries producing the chemicals.96 As a result of the debate, some countries, including the United States and Sweden, banned the use of CFCs in spray cans, but the US industry argued that tackling the problem on a national basis would create competitive disadvantages. UNEP was the international institution with responsibility for the environment, and in 1975 it took the issue on board.97 Initially, cooperation was focused on monitoring the ozone layer and harmonizing national policies. UNEP saw itself as a facilitator of international scientific consensus, but the Scandinavian countries also wanted political action and pushed for negotiations...

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC

The UNFCCC sets forth a series of principles for achieving the Convention's objective. These principles have not only guided implementation of the UNFCCC but have also influenced subsequent negotiations and agreements on climate change. The principles are highlighted below The objective and principles established by the UNFCCC continue to play an important role in shaping international environmental law on climate policy. Nonetheless, it became evident to many that the Convention's voluntary commitments to stabilize emissions at the 1990 levels would be insufficient to reach its ultimate objective of stabilizing GHG emissions. During the summer of 1995, the COP issued the Berlin Mandate acknowledging that further action would be required on stabilizing GHG emissions. This led to new rounds of negotiations and the subsequent adoption by COP of the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997.

Networks For Climate Change

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), one of the central elements of the Kyoto Protocol, has often been described as a huge 'public-private partnership'.29 Those involved in attempting to put it into practice after its surprise appearance very late in the Kyoto negotiations talk about it precisely as an exercise in 'learning by doing'.30 If the CDM is described as a public-private partnership, the World Bank's Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) is described as an 'implementation network',31 bringing together interested parties from North and South under the rules set out by the CDM.

Global Environmental Challenges and the Reduction of Adverse Impacts in Antarctica

The term globalisation is one of the most widely used worldwide, its common definition being economic interchange and or interdependence . Present and future environmental threats to Antarctica, the remotest region on Earth, indicate that global environmental challenges and ecological interde-pendencies are even more a reality than the acknowledged economical interdependence. The global environment, even more than the economy, has an urgent need for coordinated global-scale political, scientific and technological action. In the last decade there have been many multilateral negotiations to address global environmental issues, and several international agreements launched an ongoing process of reporting and reviewing new scientific evidence and the policies of different nations. The development of a system of governance of the global environment thus largely depends on scientific research, technology, and the involvement and interest of society and mass media. News of the recurring...

Universal Participation and the Framework Convention on Climate Change

Climate change rose quickly on the international agenda in the late 1980s on the heels of the ozone depletion negotiations. Though both problems stem from atmospheric pollution, the complexity of the climate change problem eclipses that of ozone depletion by orders of magnitude. The causes of climate change (or global warming) are ubiquitous in all societies (industrial or otherwise), and virtually all biological, agricultural, and industrial activities contribute to the problem. Similarly, the potential effects of climate change promise to have an impact on most of humanity, altering sea levels and weather patterns. Climate change officially became an international policy issue in December 1988 when the UN General Assembly, at the behest of Malta, passed a resolution calling for cooperative action.1 By this time the international community, through UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), had already created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and...

Tao Wang and Jim Watson

The scale of this carbon leakage to developing countries through international trade is so significant that it needs to be taken into account in the next round of international climate agreements. Some observers have called for a radical change from production-based to consumption-based national emissions accounts so that emissions embodied in traded goods are included within the consuming country's targets. But this would be impractical due to data uncertainties and the large amount of political capital that has already been invested in the current accounting system. Measurement of consumption-based carbon emissions could, however, be used as a shadow indicator in negotiations and could complement official nationally based emissions inventories.4

Nationalism in Greenland

Member of Denmark's ruling Conservative party and one of the key negotiators in Greenland's new autonomy deal, pointed out at the time.28 Aleqa Hammond, Minister for Finance and Foreign Affairs in the home rule government, is equally upbeat 'If Greenland becomes economically self-sufficient, then independence becomes a practical possibility. We know that we have gold and diamonds and oil and great masses of the cleanest water in the world. It may be closer than we think.'29 Resolving the political conflict between the two sides could take years, and is likely to become even more difficult if, in the years ahead, the price of oil and gas climbs high and thereby raises the financial stakes involved. So when commodity prices soared in the summer of 2008, the dispute became more bitter as both sides dug in their heels. As Kuupik Kleist, one of two Greenlandic representatives to the Danish Parliament and a leading member of the negotiations, told journalists, 'on the Danish side, they have...

Stringent Vehicle Emissions Standards

Euro Emissions Standards

With regard to Euro VI heavy-duty requirements, the European Commission issued a proposal in December 2007, which it intended to be approximately equivalent to the U.S. 2010 limits (see Fig. 6.5). In December 2008, the European Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favor of the new emissions curbs with 610 votes in favor, 11 against, and 22 abstentions. (MEPs and government negotiators actually arranged the compromise deal in early November.) The new Euro VI regulation will have direct effect and will not require transposition into national law by the 27 EU states.

Introduction Apples and Oranges

In December 1997, after nights of bargaining that culminated two years of hard negotiations, representatives of 160 governments wearily agreed in Kyoto, Japan, on a protocol to supplement the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It was hoped that the Kyoto Protocol would represent a major step forward by the international community to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases that could alter future climate. Before long, however, doubts emerged on whether the treaty was implementable, and even whether enough governments would ratify it to allow its coming into force as international law. Now, over three years later, However, the negotiations over climate change, from their very inception in Chantilly, Virginia, in February 1991, have been marked by persistent disarray among the negotiating parties on the necessity and feasibility of strong, early measures to remodel the world's energy structure. Proponents of decisive action became increasingly frustrated by...

Discussion And Conclusions

These results show that climate change mitigation policies aimed at the promotion of the sustainable production and use of bioenergy can have a major impact on global agricultural land use. Such a transition requires substantial increases in crop yields and efficiency and opens up new possibilities for income and jobs in the agricultural sector particularly in developing regions. To what extent this transition is going to be successful, depends partially on the costs of bioenergy production compared to fossil fuels and other renewable energy sources. This also includes costs of the transfer of technology to make the gains in yield and production efficiency possible. In reality, yield levels are the result of many complex interactions between numerous factors in the entire socioeconomic system (e.g. prices of land and labour, available infrastructure, natural circumstances, trade negotiations, interest rates, education level of agricultural workforce). These complex interactions are...

Alliance of Small Island States

And low-lying states have often been lost amongst other international issues. AOSIS seeks to mitigate this situation by providing a collective voice for its members and applying greater pressure to the rest of the international community. As a group, small island states have a greater international voice and are in a better position to effect change than as individual negotiators. As a result, ASOSIS has increased the representation of small island developing states and lowland areas within the UN system. Historically, AOSIS has favored and pursued legally-binding agreements or hard laws to address issues such as sea-level rise, while the remainder of the international community has generally favored soft law agreements, especially with regards to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this regard, AOSIS has led or been involved with numerous international treaties, conferences, and negotiations. Further, AOSIS's involvement and awareness-raising activities surrounding...

Earth Summit Rio June 1992

While not all that the South had hoped for (or even close to what it hoped for), given the recalcitrant stance of the United States in these negotiations the commitment to development assistance is noteworthy. The North did, in the end, agree to provide new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations . . . , 189 and the FCCC was clear that Southern action was contingent upon funding.190 In the end, the United States prevailed by steadfastly sticking to its positions of no binding targets and utilizing strategies that presupposed universal participation. The FCCC reflects these U.S. positions in a mirror-like fashion. The FCCC, stressing common but differentiated responsibilities, did commit all parties (both North and South) to take actions, though the actions revolved around reporting national inventories of greenhouse gases, constructing national climate change plans, and taking actions...

Adaptation and the Norm Life Cycle

Chapter 1 asserts a norms-based and complex systems explanation for the dynamic nature of global responses in ozone depletion and climate change the transition to universal participation in the ozone depletion issue, the lock-in around universal participation in the initial climate change negotiations, and the contestation over universal participation in the 1990s. Addressing the puzzle of participation and providing an accounting of the governance of ozone depletion and climate change requires fully grasping how the United States and the international community came to understand the requirements for these global environmental problems. While perhaps plausible on its face (and certainly more plausible than the problematic alternatives discussed in chapter 2), the constructivist complex systems explanation remains merely an interesting hypothesis until rigorously assessed. As noted in chapter 1, the first step toward this assessment is to operationalize the argument theoretically to...

Arctic And SuBarctic IssuES

Negotiations, proposals developed by the center have been included in the negotiating texts and supported by governments and international institutions. The key areas of focus for the center's Climate Change Program include accounting rules that ensure verifiable emissions reductions, promote sustainable development, conserve biological diversity and respect other ecological values compliance and monitoring systems for enforcing the Kyoto Protocol participation of the public, including directly affected local communities and civil society in the Kyoto Protocol and domestic policy to combat global warming.

Clearing Enabled Australia To Be On Its Kyoto Target

In most countries LUCF was a net sink, but in Australia a quarter of the country's 1990 emissions were generated by land clearing. In the closing hours of the Kyoto negotiations, what became known as the 'Australia clause' was inserted, enabling countries for whom land-use change and forestry constituted a net source of greenhouse emissions to include them in the calculation of the 1990 baseline (Grubb et al., 1999).

Technology Based Strategy for the Future Eight Points for Action

Not only are the time-consuming negotiations to resolve the flaws of Kyoto not bringing the parties closer to consensus, they actually prevent governments from focusing on more realistic paths. The Kyoto Protocol has become the victim of polarized debate over inconsequential short-term emissions, compounded by large uncertainties about the costs of compliance. The existing treaty provides inadequate emphasis on the technological imperative and on securing the cooperation of developing nations. The current debates distract attention from the real challenge, which is to set the stage for steep cuts needed before the end of the new century. A technology strategy is only defensible, however, if it does not become an invitation to delay. Much must be done right now to start the process. Here is a possible eight-point program of action for the deadlocked negotiators. For all of the reasons enumerated earlier, I would also shelve for the foreseeable future the disputatious negotiations on...

Overcoming the Costs of Non Cooperation From Rights to Needs to Interests

International negotiations are often hamstrung because of entrenched and contradictory opening positions. Generally, parties base their initial positions in terms of rights - the sense that a riparian country is entitled to a certain allocation based on hydrography or chronology of use. Upstream riparian countries often invoke some variation of the Harmon Doctrine, claiming that water rights originate where the water falls. India claimed absolute sovereignty in the early phases of negotiations over the Indus Waters Treaty, as did France in the Lac Lanoux case, and Palestine over the West Bank aquifer. Downstream riparian countries often claim absolute integrity, claiming rights to an undisturbed system or, if on an exotic stream, historic rights based on their history of use. Spain insisted on absolute integrity regarding the Lac Lanoux project, while Egypt claimed historic rights to the Nile, first against Sudan, and later against Ethiopia. However, in almost all the disputes,...

Climate for business from threat to opportunity

It may seem hard to believe today, but there was once a time that business denied there was such a thing as climate change. Vast amounts of money and effort went into discrediting the scientific basis on which the case for action was made. Business lobby organisations were set up and funded by those companies that felt threatened by action on climate change. Aggressive lobbying which aimed to derail national and international responses to the issue was commonplace on Capitol Hill in Washington or at UN climate negotiations.

Climate Change Knowledge Network

The aims of the network are to promote more sustainable and equitable climate change management through research and communication on issues such as the Kyoto Protocol, to develop a dialogue between developed and developing countries for a better understanding of the global effects of climate change, and to help each member institution to increase its capacity to propose regional policies about climate change. The network promotes international negotiations that make explicit connections between The CCKN is committed to the training of negotiators from developing countries so that they can effectively take part in international negotiating processes. As part of its activities, the network has devised an online resource to provide an overview of the key topics and actors in climate negotiations. This is an important tool for developing countries that are the most affected by climate change, but whose negotiating capabilities are often challenged. The network recognizes that developing...

Maria Jos Sanz Ernst Detlef Schulze and Riccardo Valentini

The 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the first binding international legal instrument to specifically address climate change. After 15 months of intensive negotiations, it was adopted in May 1992 within the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (INC FCCC). In June 1992 it was opened for signature in Rio de Janeiro at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The INC negotiators drew on the First Assessment Report (FAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a body established jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). They were also influenced by the Ministerial Declaration issued by the Second World Climate Conference and by policy statements adopted by numerous other climate conferences. INC negotiations U.N. FCCC ment that would be binding on the industrialized and developing countries. The Berlin Mandate, which was...

Box 111 Key terms in emissions trading schemes

(ii) Flexible or predictable To encourage firms to invest in low carbon technologies, the carbon price needs to be long term, credible and predictable. If the profitability of an investment hinges upon the future price of carbon, investors are vulnerable to both future changes in government policy and the outcome of international negotiations. Allowing investors to bear this risk is economically inefficient, since it increases the required rate of return on projects and discourages investment and innovation in low carbon technologies. While carbon trading inevitably leads to some uncertainty over future carbon prices, this can be reduced if carbon targets are predictable over the long term. But at the same time, policymakers need the flexibility to adjust carbon targets in response to new scientific and economic information and new political developments.

Mobilising the power of investors

The scene is the launch of the 2007 report produced by the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), in Amsterdam, December 2007. It is a measure of how much attention is now on climate change that this event is going on, and fills a lecture hall with 200 people, at the same time as the UN climate negotiations in Bali. The launch is in the plush headquarters of Dutch bank ABN-AMRO, known outside the Netherlands principally as long-time sponsors of Ajax Amsterdam football club, but one of Europe's largest banks. The audience is mostly fund managers from a range of Dutch financial institutions, as well as a handful of journalists, academics and NGO lobbyists. But few analysts of climate politics would have thought that this sort of activity might become important, even central, to pursuing carbon emission reductions. Most were focusing on the intergovernmental negotiations, or on the obvious 'corporate villains' such as Exxon. Even those observers, like both of us, who were following the...

The limits of climate capitalism

Besides issues of who is in a position to participate in the CDM market and benefit from CDM projects, other more wide-ranging criticisms focus on the issue of the global South being seen as a sink for Northern emissions, most critically referred to as 'carbon colonialism'.6 Even senior government officials within the climate change negotiations, such as the 'father of Kyoto', Ambassador Ra l Estrada-Oyuela, noted at the time of the Kyoto agreement to be built in Norway. International criticism at the time prevented the project from claiming carbon credits to 'offset' the power plant emissions, but the project continued and the trees were planted. After lengthy negotiations, the Norwegian owners agreed to allocate less than 5 of the land they received from the government at a 'bargain price' to the local people who had previously been evicted. According to one NGO, 'The eucalyptus trees chosen for the project appear to have been a poor choice for the local site. Local people state...

Summary and Implications

A casual look at the last few decades of debate about the CO2-climate problem might lead one to view geoengineering as a passing aberration an idea that originated with a few speculative papers in the 1970s, that reach a peak of public exposure with the NAS92 assessment and the contemporaneous American Geophysical Union and American Association for the Advancement of Science colloquia of the early 1990s, an idea that is now fading from view as international commitment to substantive action on climate grows ever stronger. The absence of debate about geoengineering in the analysis and negotiations surrounding the FCCC supports this interpretation. However, I argue that this view is far too simplistic. First, consider that scientific understanding of climate has co-evolved with knowledge of anthropogenic climate impacts, with speculation about the means to manipulate climate, and with growing technological power that grants the ability to put speculation into practice. The history of...

The Political Context of Soil Carbon Sequestration

Scientific issues relating to the use of biospheric sinks in the Kyoto Protocol were addressed in the IPCC (2000a). Although many of these issues no longer apply (since the political negotiations have moved on), this text is still a useful source of information on the potential of biospheric sinks, including soils, for climate mitigation.

Center for International Climate and environment Research

The researchers monitor the effects climate policies have on the global climate system. Many of the published studies discuss how the distribution of greenhouse gases is affecting atmospheric composition. Aside from scientific research, scholars in this division also take part in policy development. Researchers work on creating ways to track the emission of greenhouse pollutants, while others are involved in climate policy negotiations.

Pew center on global climate change

Underpinning this mission is the commitment by Pew Center staff to educate policymakers and the general community about the causes and consequences of climate change. In so doing, the Pew Center has commissioned many significant reports on the impacts of climate change in various contexts, including domestic and international policy, economic and environmental impacts, and practical solutions. For example, reports have focused on the relationship between developing and developed worlds in relation to climate change policies. Many reports highlight the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems. The Pew reports offer policymakers and the public the opportunity to access and learn about detailed case studies from across the world on this topic. The Pew Center also hosts conferences and workshops on climate-related topics to stimulate engagement and interaction between business, government, and nongovernmental organizations. Staff from the Pew Center also regularly participate and...

OECD Climate Change Documents

One of OECD's branches is the Environment Directorate, which aims to supply governments with the analytical information to develop policies that are effective and economically efficient, as well as respectful of the environment. The Directorate compiles country performance reviews, data collection, policy analysis, projections, and modeling, and encourages the development of common approaches. Within the Environment Directorate, the Department of Climate Change, Energy, and Transport specifically assesses the impact of global climate change on economies, societies and the environment in the 21st century. The Department supports the integration of climate policy targets within larger policy areas. OECD also works closely with the Annex I Expert Group on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the group of government officials from Environment, Energy, and Foreign Affairs ministries from countries that are listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC, and those that have...

Box 174 Adaptation costs and benefits in the water management sector of South Africa

Highlighted Map Sus Saharah Africa

There is some evidence that national-level indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity are used by climate change negotiators, practitioners, and decision makers in determining policies and allocating priorities for funding and interventions (Eriksen and Kelly, 2007). However, few studies have been globally comprehensive, and the literature lacks consensus on the usefulness of indicators of generic adaptive capacity and the robustness of the results (Downing et al., 2001 Moss et al., 2001 Yohe and Tol, 2002 Brooks et al., 2005 Haddad, 2005). A comparison of results across five vulnerability assessments shows that the 20 countries ranked 'most vulnerable' show little consistency across studies (Eriksen and Kelly, 2007). Haddad (2005) has shown empirically that the ranking of adaptive capacity of nations is significantly altered when national aspirations are made explicit. He demonstrates that different aspirations (e.g., seeking to maximise the welfare of citizens, to maintain...

Milankovitch Cycles

Awareness-raising activities, 1 127 binding agreements pursued by, 1 127 climate-change negotiations, 1 127 inception, 1 127 Maldives, 2 616 member states, 1 127 Micronesia, 2 647 Vanuatu, 3 1057 Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), 1 28-30, 1 175 energy-saving industry and, 1 29 history, 1 28-29

From hierarchies to networks

Especially in diplomatic contexts where the two groups face each other often in sharp confrontation. Alternative terms like 'developed' (or 'industrialised') and 'developing' are also common ways to express this distinction. In the climate change negotiations, another layer of jargon is added, with Annex I (in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) and Annex B (in the Kyoto Protocol) both referring to 'northern' or 'industrialised, countries. We stick to North and South for continuity and simplicity.

Center for Science and Environment India

Invaluable role in arguing for equity in global environmental management in the process that led up to the Rio Earth Summit. He worked to put environment on the global political and civil society agenda from a Southern Hemisphere perspective. Most importantly, through his writings and advocacy, he played a vital role in providing the answers for an environmentally sound development strategy for countries such as India. Sunita Narain, CSE's present director, has carried on with advocacy for the Global South, and has played an important role in climate change negotiations. The center has advocated for the Global South and developing countries. According to its briefing paper, Equity is a prerequisite for any global agreement, particularly when dealing with the pollution of a global common property resource such as the atmosphere.

Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation Projects or Programmes

Land-use sectors have been recognized as critical to addressing climate change concerns. Mitigation of climate change through land-based activities has been a contentious issue in global negotiations under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol because of several methodological issues related to measurement, monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon benefits (Ravindranath and Sathaye 2002). Carbon inventory for mitigation projects requires methods for estimating carbon stocks and changes due to project activities for selected periods at the project concept formulation, proposal development, project implementation and monitoring stages. Methods are required for the baseline (without project) and mitigation scenarios. Mitigating climate change through land-use sectors involves reducing CO2 emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in biomass, soil and wood products. Reducing deforestation, sustainable forest management, afforestation, reforestation, agroforestry, urban forestry, shelter...

Costs And Funding Of Forestry Cdm Project Development

The BioCarbon Fund has been at the cutting edge of development of methodologies which are now in the public domain. Importantly, it has also shown with purchase agreements how projects can be implemented with concrete results. Moreover, the Fund has developed methodologies for activities not covered by the CDM such as avoided deforestation, and is exploring and piloting forest management, sustainable agriculture and revegetation activities. Such experience will be invaluable in the postKyoto negotiations centering on expanded rules for forestry.

Emissions Trading Takes

Once emissions trading became a formal part of the negotiations, however, it became clear that the equitable part of the equation was to be eliminated. This was largely a result of a diplomatic impasse it provoked. Northern countries baulked at the financial transfers implied, while Southern countries resisted steadfastly the implicit limit on their emissions. The legacy of widening inequalities produced this impasse in climate diplomacy. But it also resulted from the ideological priority attached to efficiency and the way that markets are assumed to produce such efficiency, an idea that was more important to powerful actors than the plea for equity. So emissions trading emerged as the preferred option because of its ideological fit with neoliberal logic. But it was also more successful because of its fit with the interests of newly dominant financial actors. The USA first formally proposed emissions trading in the UN negotiations in December 1996, and initially there was much...

Lessons Learned Time Lost

Though rarely recalled today, the Montreal Protocol offers lessons for the climate negotiations of 2009. The U.S. government and chemical manufacturers strongly supported the phaseout of ozone-depleting gases. The agreement allowed developing countries a later timetable and established a global fund to funnel them needed financing from industrial countries. The fund to date has spent 2.3 billion. The agreement defined the dividing line between the two groups by per capita production and consumption. Although the climate problem is far larger and more complex than ozone depletion, each of the elements that help this treaty succeed could contribute to an effective climate agreement.13 By 1994, most of the world's nations, including the United States, had ratified and put into force the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, first agreed to at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. That treaty expressed two key principles that have guided...

Boundary organizations as connecting point

Scientific assessments are processes in which the boundaries between science and policy are constantly negotiated in order to ensure that science and policy have authority in their respective arenas.11 Such negotiations are in fact central to science-policy relationship in general and a way to uphold the boundary between the two spheres and to make sure that the knowledge is generally accepted as valid and useful.12 This is aptly illustrated by the ACIA process in the increasing demarcation of the policy process from the scientific domain. However, the ACIA process also points to the importance of appropriate arenas for the boundary work, including the role of boundary organizations. Boundary organizations answer to both the science and the policy worlds and serve as ways to manage the science-policy hybrids.13

Modeling the Norm Life Cycle

Second, simulation analysis provides me with a social laboratory where I can experiment with the processes contained within the NLC. These experiments point to further insights that enhance the case studies of the ozone depletion and climate change negotiations and they facilitate outlining the boundary conditions of the verbal framework. When will a norm entrepreneur be able to catalyze the emergence of norms Under what conditions will norms emerge Modeling the norm life cycle is a rigorous way to find answers to these questions. While the model developed below is abstract and not designed to simulate actual negotiations, it does test the verbal model in crucial ways. Most importantly it explores how norm entrepreneurs influence the connections between norms and actors.

The Policy Drafting Team

The end result of these discussions was a Policy Drafting Team that was to be co-chaired by the chairs of AMAP and CAFF. Each country was invited to nominate a person, as were each of the Permanent Participants, for a total of fourteen individuals.139 One of the co-chairs of the Policy Drafting Team has described the group as consisting of three kinds of participants. Some countries had nominated climate negotiators while others had nominated science-policy oriented people, and the Permanent Participants were the watch-dogs over the process.140 For example, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark had climate negotiators in the group while the United States had chosen a person outside the climate policy community.141 The organizations with observer status in the AMAP Working Group and CAFF Working Group had no representation in the Policy Drafting Team. This includes IASC but also the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). A representative for the WWF has commented that this made the process very...

Devising an Effective Incentive System

The obvious choice would be the WTO, but whether that organization can be credible in such a situation is questionable. An alternative would be to create a new international institution specifically to broker such negotiations. Finally, there is the possibility that the OECD countries could muster sufficient political will and commitment to provide the leadership for brokering such arrangements.

Policies And Incentives For Agricultural Carbon Sequestration

The issue of establishing credits for forestry and agriculture as carbon sinks was hotly debated during the negotiations. Technical difficulties in verifying the amount of carbon sequestered by agriculture was one contentious issue. Nevertheless, guidelines for carbon sequestration were agreed to in the 2001 Marrakesh accords, which provide rules for land use, land use change, and forestry (UNFCCC, 2002a). The accords recognize revegetation and improved management of cropland and grazing land as carbon sinks, and allow parties to receive credits for carbon sequestered in excess of 1990 levels. Scientific bodies supporting the Kyoto Protocol continue to work on protocols to verify emissions removals achieved by these activities.

Net and Longline Fishermen

The largest vessel of the artisanal fleet (approximately 30 gross registered metric tons) uses purse seine nets and is dedicated to the capture of anchovy, which is sold to the fishmeal plants. This group has a relative advantage during some ENSO events, as the anchovy move closer to shore in search of the nutrient-rich upwelled water, because the industrial fleet is not permitted to fish within 5 miles of the shore. This can lead to conflict and informal negotiations between the two sectors. With the total disappearance of anchovy during extreme ENSO events such as that of 19971998, some of these fishermen have modified their boats with permission and some minor subsidization from the government enabling them to trawl for langostinos, among other species that migrated down from Ecuador.

Political cooperation

States were the main actors, especially Finland and Canada.174 Their diplomatic activities culminated in the Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment in 1991, the so-called Rovaniemi Declaration, and the creation of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) as a forum for collaboration around transboundary environmental issues. Scientific networks may have played more of a role in the initiation of the AEPS than is apparent from Young's account of the formation of this regime, but it did not operate as an epistemic community presenting a common solution or perspective to a problem. Rather, it may have provided a networks that included the Soviet Union, which could be used to scout out the potential for political negotiations. A person who took part in the initial discussions has described himself feeling a bit like an experimental rabbit let out in the man ge for the bureaucrats and the foreign minis

Levels and Types of Adaptation

Despite such obstacles the record so far seems to suggest that the prospects for agriculture in the face of climate change are good at the global level, but that severe local disruptions and inequalities are possible, even likely. This diagnosis suggests the need to pay more attention to national policy and global negotiations in order to alleviate inequalities between and within nations. The very success of technical adaptation at the local level in some places is creating problems that need to be addressed by national governments acting in their own areas of jurisdiction, and by international agreements directed towards the stability of the global system. To date adaptation has been treated largely as a matter of measures to be adopted at the local level. There is also a global dimension to adaptation which we neglect at some risk. From the perspective of climate change and development the place where local and global converge is at the level of national policy.

Capacity for Learning by Doing

The above consideration may suggest a need for heavy planning processes, but this should be avoided at all costs. It is much better to start immediately with a few experimental restoration activities on the basis of outcomes of the initial discussions amongst stakeholders. These trials will establish the credibility of outside stakeholders and will permit learning. They will greatly enrich ongoing stakeholder negotiations that should continue throughout the pro-gramme.The initial objective should be to build a community of interest groups that can experiment and learn together.

INC V Part 1New York February 1992

The monotonous story of the U.S. negotiating behavior and the climate change convention negotiations themselves finally took a different turn at the INC V sessions. Though the United States entered the negotiations with the exact same position advocating flexible mechanisms with no binding targets the United States did pledge 75 million in development assistance during the February INC V session.174 Though this gesture was not grand it signaled some flexibility in the U.S. positions, while it also leveraged the U.S. commitment to the GEF as the funding agency the funds were earmarked for the GEF. Some flexibility, however, should not be confused with major flexibility. As Daniel Lashof of the NRDC noted

Integrating Climate Policies with Development Priorities

Wiring Diagram For Raymarine E80

As climate change negotiations advance, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a greater need to shift the focus on developing countries since the international negotiations have not adequately addressed their priorities for sustainable development, support for adaptation activities, aid assistance and technology transfer. This is because affordable and accessible modern energy services along with poverty reduction are essential to achieve sustainable development. Lack of access to these services adversely affects public health, constrains educational opportunities and impedes human development and well-being of nearly 1.6 billion people in developing countries. However, the proponents of climate change argue that affordable energy in the form that is currently available is also the cause of climate change. Hence, it is important to integrate development policies with A pledge-based approach by countries with bilateral and multilateral funding can bring in more success.50 A...

Equity For Efficiency The Developing Country Perspective

Limitations of the neoclassical perspective are, however, exposed when one realizes that free markets with no transaction costs do not exist. This global real-politik rests on foundations of power (not freedoms), abilities (not needs), and capacities (not vulnerabilities). Climate negotiations to date are confined to the mitigation efficiency agenda, as it suits the interest of powerful developed countries. Climate mitigation actions, however, require universal cooperation. Those who are outside the agreement could benefit in situations involving competition, as their emissions are not penalized. The nations facing impacts would cooperate only if fairly compensated. The parties, thus, not only have cooperative needs to minimize the global burden but competing needs to minimize their own share of the burden. The market efficiency-oriented global mitigation assessments arrive at the obvious conclusion that the cheapest mitigation actions can only be carried out in developing countries...

Afforestation and Reforestations the Only Options in the CDM

In the first commitment period the role of non-Annex B countries under the CDM has been limited to A R. The Marrakesh Accords also placed limitations on the amount of credits claimable by Annex B Parties to 1 percent times 5 of their 1990 emissions (or 5 percent of their 1990 emissions for the period 2008-2012) (UNEP Risoe, 2008a UNFCCC, 2006b). Under the CDM, A R projects are restricted to those that would not have occurred without CDM financing and to areas that were not forested prior to 1990. Negotiations on how to treat sources and sinks in the CDM continued until rules governing sinks were finally agreed at COP 9, in Milan, in 2003. Meanwhile, Canada had proposed insurance and protected status for forestry projects to solve the permanence issue, while Colombia had proposed that carbon credits would expire when carbon is readmitted from the atmosphere. In the Colombian proposal the holding country would need to increase carbon emissions by that amount in its national inventory or...

Michele M Betsill and Harriet Bulkeley

The threat of global climate change is one of the most significant scientific and political challenges of our time. For more than a decade, members of the international community have debated the need for action to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, the relative responsibilities of different countries, and the means through which action could, or should, be taken. Given the global nature of the problem, these debates have largely taken place in the context of international treaty negotiations (the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol). However, as is becoming increasingly clear, climate change is also a profoundly local issue. Because greenhouse gas emissions originate from processes that are embedded in specific places, nation-states will be unable to meet their international commitments for addressing climate change without local action. Many local governments have considerable authority over land-use planning and waste management and can play an...

The International Geophysical Year 195758

The Arctic was no longer in focus the same way as in the previous polar years, even if new forms of logistic support made it possible to set up research stations in new places, including stations on the pack ice. Instead, emphasis was placed on the Antarctic, which until this time had been inaccessible to any large-scale scientific investigations. Air transport and modern snow tractors had changed the odds for successful scientific work on this continent and the International Geophysical Year was the starting point for serious Antarctic research. In the Antarctic, the International Geophysical Year also marked the beginnings of political cooperation, and as a direct result, negotiations began on what became the Antarctic Treaty.

Justice In The Climate Context

Thus, central to the justice issues are both intragenerational and inter-generational equity concerns, this chapter focuses on intragenerational distributive justice, that is, distribution of emissions entitlements among nations in the time period beyond 2012 (the term of the Kyoto Protocol). Immediate global negotiations and actions are centered on this issue. In time, though, intergenerational equity will become increasingly important in multilateral negotiations.

Setting Realistic Goals for Restoration Within a Landscape

Ferent outputs required from most landscapes. In a landscape context, restoration goals for conservation organisations will often be closely linked to other activities relating to protected areas and sustainable forest management. Thus, restoration may seek to complement a protected area or relieve pressure on it. Equally, restoration can happen within and around the estate of a managed forest. Forest restoration goals within a landscape generally have to address both social and ecological needs they may, for instance, relate to restoration of species' habitat in one location but also to the establishment of fuelwood plantations elsewhere. In all cases, the key will be to attempt to balance those goals to provide optimal benefits (also see Goals and Targets of Forest Landscape Restoration, Negotiations and Conflict Management, and Addressing Trade-Offs in Forest Landscape Restoration ).

Trade union responses to climate change and human insecurity

The United Nations Security Council debate occurred at a time when many of the world's trade unions recognized that climate change and energy security must form part of their historical mission to ensure that development yields personal and community benefits to the working class. In response to calls for action issued by the ITUC, TUAC and several Global Union federations, a Trade Union Working Group on Climate Change has been formed, which now enjoys official status at negotiations under the UNFCCC.

Secondary health benefits of mitigation policies

The ongoing negotiations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases present an important opportunity to improve population health. Many mitigation policies and technologies in Europe and beyond can have substantial near-term health benefits. Such win-win policies can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide other social or environmental benefits. For example, restricting the circulation of private motor vehicles in urban areas would decrease the burden of mortality and morbidity from road traffic accidents and reduce both local and global pollution. A significant shift in road transport towards more environmentally sound modes of transport, such as public transport, walking and cycling, would improve air quality and population health.

Why is energy efficiency important

About 1 per year would be sustainable over the next century employing only those emission control policies internationally agreed to at the 1992 Rio Climate Treaty negotiations. Various studies model or otherwise forecast long-term rates of energy intensity decline ranging from no change to greater than 2 per year. Others point to historical precedents for rapid efficiency improvement over shorter time scales of about 3 per year in the US from 1979-1986 (Lovins, 1998).

Evolution of the IPCC

There is a reciprocal relationship between the IPCC and the UNFCCC. The first IPCC assessment and a supplementary report in 1992 played important roles in the initial negotiations for the Convention, and the second assessment in relation to the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol. Conferences of the Parties have also in agreements referred to the IPCC reports in relation to basing decisions on the latest scientific, technical and socioeconomic information. Nevertheless, at the first Conference of the Parties, the UNFCCC created its own unit for analyzing technical and scientific questions - the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). SBSTA uses the IPCC as one of its inputs but has also come with requests to the IPCC for in-depth reports on specific topics.149 One such request was a report to follow up on the focus on vulnerability at the global level in Working Group II's Second Assessment Report in

The Diplomatic Road to Copenhagen

Fifteen years after international climate negotiations began at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, and 10 years after the Kyoto Protocol was completed, the Bali Road Map and Action Plan outlined the steps needed to reach a new, post-Kyoto climate treaty in Copenhagen by the end of 2009. Beyond 2009, international negotiations on climate will likely continue in order to set new emission reduction targets, adapt to scientific advances, and adjust to a changing climate.

Equity Procedural And Consequential

Two types of equity (Banuri et al., 1996) underlie the multilateral frameworks that have been discussed so far - procedural and consequential. Procedural equity refers to the impartiality and fairness'' in the process of delivering and administering justice. Principles like inclusive participation of affected parties in justice proceedings or equal treatment of all before the law reflect the notion of procedural equity. In multilateral processes, procedural equity concerns on the part of developing countries often arise not from their formal exclusion from multilateral negotiations but, rather, from their inability to influence the process due to a poor information base and weak bargaining power.

The Problem Of Motivation

Moreover, rejecting the moral framing of the climate change problem and instead approaching it from the perspective of self-interest does not lead to solutions. Although I think we could get further on this ground than we have gotten thus far, ultimately acting on the basis of narrow self-interest locks us into collective action problems that lead to worse outcomes overall. This is borne out by the current state of climate change negotiations and also helps explain why we as individuals often feel so powerless in the face of this problem.72

Explanation of the Issue

Forest landscape restoration approaches use the restoration of forest functions as an entry point to identify and build a diversity of social, ecological, and economic benefits at a landscape scale. As such they rely on achieving broad consensus on a range of restoration interventions from a variety of stakeholders, who may have very different perceptions of what forest landscapes should provide. This requires effective negotiation among stakeholders whose negotiation skills, interests, needs, and power are often markedly different. However, the success of forest landscape restoration approaches often hinges on how successfully such negotiations are conducted. The principles of forest landscape restoration, therefore, aim at restoring forests to provide

Adaptation practices options and constraints

Integrated Water Resources Management should be an instrument to explore adaptation measures to climate change, but so far is in its infancy. Successful integrated water management strategies include, among others capturing society's views, reshaping planning processes, coordinating land and water resources management, recognizing water quantity and quality linkages, conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater, protecting and restoring natural systems, and including consideration of climate change. In addition, integrated strategies explicitly address impediments to the flow of information. A fully integrated approach is not always needed but, rather, the appropriate scale for integration will depend on the extent to which it facilitates effective action in response to specific needs (Moench et al., 2003). In particular, an integrated approach to water management could help to resolve conflicts among competing water users. In several places in the western USA, water managers and...

Analysis of the overview process

The scientific community, as it was embodied in ACIA's Assessment Steering Committee, could keep the controversies in the policy process and attempts from the United States to delay the process at bay. This action can be understood, as Gieryn uses the term, as effective boundary work, i.e. the attribution of selected characteristics to the institution of science for purposes of constructing a social boundary that distinguishes some intellectual activity as non-science.120 In the case of the ACIA, policy makers may have wanted to be sure that they would not be forced by science into making policy decisions that were not the right ones within their sphere of analysis. Scientists, on the other hand, did not want to be limited by political sensitivities connected to either global climate negotiations or internal national politics when describing the impacts of climate change.

Minimizing And Sharing The Burden

Fairness is central to any multilateral regime, that is, any agreement between multiple nation-states to address and resolve a common problem. Climate change mitigation is among the key global environmental concerns that will require a common agenda, approach, and set of actions by the community of nations. To that end, global climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) are centered on establishing a multilateral framework to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all nations and to help those who would be affected by climate change. Although intertwined with issues (e.g., energy, transport, water, food, and forests) that are fundamental to the economic interests of all nations, the international effort to address climate change has hitherto met only with limited success. Negotiations have been confined to the limited goal of

Conclusions and discussion

In the scientific assessment, the regional perspective was partly lost in the global-local dichotomy. However, in the overview document, the pan-Arctic region is given a much stronger emphasis and also given a symbolic role as the a canary in the mine warning system for what could be in store globally. As this framing is not as prominent in the scientific report, the immediate drivers appear to be the team that was responsible for the production of the overview and their wish to be policy relevant within the context of the global climate negotiations. A popular science genre, including attempts to draw general conclusions from an Arctic assessment, would also favor regional summaries over highlighting local complexity. An additional context that may have played a role for the regional framing is the building of a regional Arctic identity, in particular the voice of indigenous peoples in the Arctic Council and the role they have created for themselves as spokespeople for the Arctic...

Searching for flexibility creating a market

If you were sitting in Oslo, Norway, in 1991, as was Ted Hanisch, as the UN climate negotiations started, then two things would have been obvious to you. On the one hand, Norway has a strong tradition of environmental leadership. In the form of previous (and future) prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, it provided the chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development that popularised the term 'sustainable development'. The country also has considerable achievements in reductions in various pollutants and a positive reputation for stringent environmental regulation. On the other hand, Norway is an oil producer and exporter, already heavily dependent on oil exports for growth and export earnings, and poised for a significant expansion of its oil operations. Public pressure and diplomatic reputation required Norway to play a positive role in the response to climate change. But emissions were projected to grow significantly because of the role of oil in the economy. This idea...

Negotiation Health Warning

Finally, it is important to note that like other aspects of conflict management, negotiation is a culturally bound process. Different societies, groups, agencies, and organisations all have different cultures and approaches to managing conflict. While much of the literature on negotiations is Western and business-oriented, there needs to be a high degree of cultural sensitivity and contextually located understanding to proceed with negotiations, especially where many different cultures are involved in multi-stakeholder negotiations.

Changing the Forest Policy in Bulgaria Thanks to a Cost Benefit Analysis182

Sometimes it will be sufficient to remove, reduce, or mitigate a particular threat or pressure on forests in a landscape to set them on a positive path toward regeneration. Because threats often originate from political or economic decisions, changing them may require significant lobbying, backed up by negotiations, research, and building of strategic partnerships. If these threats can be reduced or removed, natural regeneration can often be significant (if there are no other biophysical constraining factors).

The Development And Climate Paradigm

Climate change interfaces with various societal and natural processes and, consequently, with development processes. Development and climate intersect along two broad dimensions. First, the localized impacts of climate change like water shortages, agricultural disruption, and coastal flooding pose serious long-term threats to development. These impacts will be felt disproportionately in developing countries. Second, development activities emit GHGs, which are driving forces of climate change. Developing countries, particularly those that are least developed, have expressed considerable concern about their vulnerability to climate impacts. Since the impacts are considered a future problem, climate negotiations have concentrated on emissions mitigation. Balance in emphasis between mitigation and adaptation must be restored. Aligning development and climate actions in developing countries is the most practical and effective way to restore the balance and ensure the participation of...

The Foundations Of The Global Governance Of Climate Change Ihe Initial Normative Context Universal Participation

Nineteen-eighty-eight also saw the inauguration of the IPCC in November. UNEP and the WMO created the panel to research and report the current state of climate change knowledge. Thirty states undertook this largely scientific enterprise (eleven developing, including the crucial Southern states India, China, and Brazil) in three working groups the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change, and potential policy responses to climate change.45 The express purpose of the IPCC was to provide a firm foundation for future negotiations. The North-heavy makeup of the panel reflected the current state of climate science expertise, rather than an understanding of appropriate participation. However, the IPCC was not immune to the alterations of the normative context ongoing in the ozone negotiations. At a 1989 conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands, sixty-eight states (roughly half North and half South) convened the first ministerial-level meeting on climate change. This meeting was...

Setting the Negotiating Table The Race to Replace Kyoto by 2012

For the global response to climate change, 2007 was a landmark year. It began in January with President Bush's State of the Union address, in which he for the first time acknowledged the serious challenge of global climate change, and concluded in December with the Bali Roadmap which global negotiators will use to seek to finalize an agenda for a framework by 2009 in Copenhagen to replace the Kyoto accord, due to expire in 2012. Although this was the ambitious officially declared agenda, Yvo de Boer, the executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), revealingly stated in an October 2007 interview, I think the challenge in the next two years will be to design a climate policy that is good for the United Sates, good for China, and good for the EU. 1

Policy Oriented Heuristic Models

With common situations or common interests (such as the developed nations), takes as input the commitments to GHG emissions reductions each bloc might be willing to make, and generates projected emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, temperature, and sea level rise over the next 100 years. The underlying model is simple enough to be used in real time by policy makers to ask what if questions that can inform negotiations. It can also be used in combination with gaming simulations in which individuals or teams take on the roles of blocs of countries and negotiate with each other to simulate not only the climate system but also the international negotiation process. When such simplified models are used, however, it is important to ensure that the simplified representations of complex processes are backed up, supported, and verified by more comprehensive models that can simulate the full range of critical processes in both the Earth system and human systems.

Local global and regional preferences in the ACIA

The reasons varied among the actors, for instance the Nordic states and the indigenous peoples wanted the Arctic to serve as a bellwether for global climate change and possible leverage in the global negotiations. By contrast, it was clear that the US State Department did not want to give the Arctic this role and that it would, in fact, put a major effort into stopping any initiative towards making the Arctic Council a legitimate arena for climate politics. In this instance, the global preference is in direct contrast to a regional preference.

Identifying Goals For Climate Policy A Pluralistic Approach

Engagement of public discourse about both the consequences of different actions and the applicable social values, especially where operable norms are not clear-cut or are conflicting. This is a step in explicitly acknowledging that the decision process cannot be purely scientific. The public engagement can take various forms, from educational programs to multiple-stakeholder negotiations to interagency debates characterized by disclosure and electoral accountability.

Roots of climate scepticism

Environmentalism posed a particular threat because it called into question the benign nature of the system not from the perspective of an oppressed group but from the perspective of science, the very basis of Western civilisation. In the emergence of the 'green scare' the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 was a critical moment, one that brought to a head three decades of rising environmental concerns around the world.3 Attended by 108 heads of state or government, it put environmentalism at the centre of global action and, among other important agreements, adopted the Framework Convention on Climate Change which to this day provides the architecture for international negotiations on climate change. The Earth Summit not only highlighted the growing body of science that identified environmental decline but signalled a marked shift in values.

Regulatory Phase Negotiation And Elaboration Of The Kyoto Protocol42

Recognizing the substantial delays that can occur between the adoption of a treaty and its entry into force, the INC FCCC decided to continue meeting prior to the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-1) in order to elaborate and implement the UNFCCC's reporting and review procedure, to address unresolved issues such as the relations between the COP and the financial mechanism, and to begin consideration of the next steps beyond the UNFCCC. This ''prompt start'' to the UNFCCC process helped speed the development of the climate change regime by allowing multilateral negotiations to continue during the interim period before the UNFCCC's entry into force.43 In addition, during this interim period, most industrialized country parties submitted national reports and the international review process began. As part of this process, the Secretariat compiled a synthesis report analyzing the overall progress by industrialized countries in implementing their commitments and...

The Issue Of Noncompliance

The U.S. should not be a signatory to any protocol to, or other agreement regarding, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992, at negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, or thereafter, which would - (A) mandate new commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the Annex I Parties, unless the protocol

The Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy

Tennberg has, in an analysis of Arctic environmental cooperation, characterized the early work of AMAP as legitimizing the existing situation and the lack of special measures to protect the Arctic. She contrasts AMAP's conclusion that the Arctic remains a clean environment to the summaries presented by other concurrent reports on the Arctic environment, which pointed to threats posed by resource exploitation and climate change.182 However, AMAP itself has highlighted the role the report played in negotiations on the UN ECE LRTAP Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants and for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.183 This latter view has support from other observers.184 In particular, AMAP together with the Northern Contaminants Programme in Canada provided a knowledge base and network from which indigenous peoples could act in the international arena.185 It also led to the Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic.

Analysis of the policy process

During the policy process, it became increasingly clear that the Senior Arctic Officials reasserted their prerogative to have the initiative when it came to policy recommendations. The United States drove this issue, but appears to have had agreement on the basic principle from several other countries. Supporting this interpretation is the fact that some countries sent high-level climate negotiators to the Policy Drafting Team from the beginning. One can speculate why the United States did not, but based on interviews with people involved in the process, it appears to have been a misjudgement of the role of this group. The shift came after the Svalbard informal meeting, at which the US chief climate negotiator was present and where the United States took several steps to keep from being bound by the ACIA scientists and indigenous peoples' presentation of how Arctic climate change should be framed. For countries whose climate policies were in line with the scientific findings, such a...

The Evolution of the Normative Context The Breakdown of North Only Participation on the Road to Montreal

The normative context that the United States acted within was relatively stable in 1986-87, though the seeds for the major transition to universal participation were sown. The negotiations that would yield the Montreal Protocol in 1987 transpired with a clear, intersubjective understanding that ozone depletion was a problem that required Northern participation in negotiations and solutions. Southern nations made up less than one-third of the participants at all three of the pre-Montreal meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group that constructed the Montreal Protocol. The United States, EU, and the rest of the Northern states were mainly concerned about negotiating and reaching a bargain among themselves. Through the summer of 1987, both the North and the South considered the manner of negotiation to be appropriate. Consequently, the actions of both Southern and Northern states in 1986-87 served to reify and reinforce the normative context, rather than change it. However, the North-only...

Agriculture Organization And Climate Change

FAO plays a key role as a neutral mediator between the agricultural community and international agencies and institutions in the international negotiations process. Thereby, FAO contributes to the implementation of agreements that ensure the fair and balanced participation of all countries, particularly developing countries.

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

Always wanted to get a better deal but didn't have the needed negotiation skills? Here are some of the best negotiation theories. The ability to negotiate is a skill which everyone should have. With the ability to negotiate you can take charge of your life, your finances and your destiny. If you feel that others are simply born with the skill to negotiate, you should know that everyone can learn this wonderful skill.

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