The Role of Power in Negotiation

Negotiating Essentials

Negotiating Essentials

Always wanted to get a better deal but didn't have the needed negotiation skills? Here are some of the best negotiation theories. The ability to negotiate is a skill which everyone should have. With the ability to negotiate you can take charge of your life, your finances and your destiny. If you feel that others are simply born with the skill to negotiate, you should know that everyone can learn this wonderful skill.

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20 Negotiation Tactics

This 70 minute video gives you access to a whole new world of negotiation techniques that you probably have never thought of before. You will learn the psychology of how people make choices, and how you can leverage those choices into your advantage in a negotiation setting. All of these tips were chosen because of how widely they can be applied to all kinds of situations. You will also get 50 real-life examples to use in your own negotiations, so that you can learn to never be taken advantage of. All we need is 70 minutes of your time, and we can have you negotiating like a pro, to be able to have people see your way, no matter what you're proposing. All of these tactics can be applied in many different settings, such as asking for a raise, getting a job, or even winning an argument! All these tactics can change how people view you, and give yourself authority!

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Post Kyoto Negotiations

As mentioned in Section 4 the Kyoto protocol will expire in 2012. Therefore at the conference of signatory states to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bali in 2007, an official start was made to negotiations to draft a new climate protocol which follows the Kyoto Protocol and to adopt the new protocol at the conference of signatory states in Copenhagen in 2009. The key negotiation blocks are

Country Negotiating Positions Explained

From the beginning of negotiations the US, Japan, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Norway were the main proponents of LULUCF. The results suggest that their proactive position was driven by the prospect of lowering their compliance costs. The failure of the EU to support forestry's inclusion can be explained by the fact that it wanted to display a leadership role in terms of the perceived problems of LULUCF, together with a lack of strong interest groups lobbying for its inclusion.5 The resistance of Eastern European countries and Russia is explained by fear that the inclusion of LULUCF would devalue the credits that they were left with after their caps under the Kyoto Protocol exceeded their current emissions.

Overview The Ozone Depletion Negotiations Of 19861990

Most analyses of the ozone negotiations have been critically concerned with cooperation and effectiveness.1 These studies examine the interests, power, and behavior of the major actors (both sovereignty free and sovereignty bound),2 assess the impact of scientific knowledge, and investigate the structure of the negotiations themselves searching for the factor(s) that led to successful cooperation and or effectiveness. In contrast, the main thrust of this book explains the conditions for cooperation the foundations for the governance of both ozone depletion and climate change. I am thus more concerned with exploring how certain fundamental ideas about participation arose and were internalized in the United States than I am with the substantive issues of addressing ozone depletion or cooperation. I explore how the underlying intersubjective understanding of the problems evolved. Therefore, I focus on two connected stories about participation in the ozone depletion negotiations the...

Hie Ozone Depletion Negotiations and Universal Participation

Universal participation was a normative position internalized before the climate change negotiations began. Positive reinforcement of the universal participation rule after the London Amendment negotiations led to its use in the next global environmental problem to arise there was a stable, low complexity social context as all states understood that the appropriate rule to follow was the universal participation norm. The experience of the ozone depletion negotiations and the rule model alterations that the United States underwent because of them shaped U.S. climate change activities. This is in line with the expectations of the NLC CAS framework and the model. This final link warrants further attention. It is likely impossible to show a definitive link between ozone depletion and climate change (ruling out all other possibilities for the source of the U.S. commitment to universal participation), and the context of climate change did not solely consist of the ozone depletion...

Development of a carbonconstrained world

In addition, since December 2006, the Commission has adopted legislation to broaden the scheme to the aviation sector. In July 2008, the European Parliament backed the proposal to include aviation in the EU ETS from January 2012, based on a deal struck by negotiators from the European Council and the European Parliament in June 2008.

Tsujii Introduction

Since the last half of the eighties, the agricultural policies in Europe and the United States have changed from protectionist, surplus producing and dumping export policies to policies of reducing price support, subsidizing income on a decoupled basis, curtailment of surpluses, correction of interregional differences and environmental protection. Since these policy changes have been made under the influence of the Uruguay Round agricultural trade negotiations during 19861993 and under the WTO framework, these changes will continue into the 21st century and thus will keep the stock ratios for grain at a low level.

Adaptation to Climate and Climate Change

This came about because the negotiators of the Convention found it convenient to divide responses to anthropogenic climate change into two types. The first and foremost response was called mitigation by which the negotiators meant any and all measures that could be taken to stabilise and eventually reduce the concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. This includes the development and deployment of energy sources other than fossil fuels, effective approaches to increase energy efficiency, and technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon capture and storage. The framers of the Convention understood that many different form of action could be taken to reduce vulnerability to climate, climate variability, and climate change. Adaptation was the convenient shorthand to refer to these potential actions.

Preface Tomorrow Is Today

Increasingly, climate change policy is being recognized and addressed across the entire multilateral framework. It is no longer the sole province of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) yet there remains a vast amount of work to fully mainstream climate change within the multilateral system. Indeed, the peace and security implications of climate change are only just beginning to be acknowledged. This book started out as a contribution to the preparations for the Poznan UNFCCC meeting in 2008. As the authors took stock of the landscape, they felt that it was more important to be seen outside of the UNFCCC meetings. The issues raised in this book are broader than those that are going to be addressed in the climate change negotiations.

Regulation Of Carbon Emissions

Land use change and forestry issues were highly controversial issues in the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol. Even now, many uncertainties remain and these have only just begun to be addressed. For example, Article 3.3 states that human-induced land-use change and forestry activities, limited to afforestation, reforestation and deforestation, shall be used to meet the commitments. Afforestation, reforestation and deforestation are still inadequately defined, and the text appears to exclude prescribed burning (which does not result in loss of forests) while including deliberate fires that result in deforestation. Even this is unclear. If a wild fire is left to burn, as is currently the policy in some parts of the boreal zone, does this represent human-induced deforestation The Protocol contains the possibility of clarifying these issues, and also adding other elements related to forestry and land use change in Article 3.4, which states that Parties shall, at its first session...

The international response to climate change

The Climate Change Conference in Bali in December 2007 (UNFCCC, 2007) was a decisive milestone for continuing the Kyoto process with ambitious targets beyond 2012. At the G8 Summit in Heiligendamm in June 2007, the major industrialized countries agreed to continue negotiations under the roof of the United Nations. Following the principle of 'common but differentiated

A working definition of regimes

The focus on a specific issue area in Krasner's definition of regimes poses a problem. For one, with an increasing interlinking of international governance related to many different issues, it can become precarious to define the issue area. For example, what does the current global climate regime include when there are different parties and different norms when looking at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a whole and the Kyoto Protocol How do the structures of the IPCC relate to the political negotiations in the UNFCCC There are also questions about how the climate regime (or the different parts of it) relates to the global trade re-gime 41 As issue areas are the results of how questions are framed and therefore are the result of social processes, I prefer to leave the question of issue area open to analysis. This also creates better opportunities for analyzing the interplay among regimes, includ

Governing energy at the global level

Over its history, and that of its predecessor the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) has presided over the steady opening up of global commerce, and the corresponding reduction of government barriers to such liberalisation. So far the WTO's rules have not had much direct impact upon the priorities and procedures of international energy trade (WTO, 1998). However, their influence is increasing. WTO rules have informed the work of other international agreements on energy trade such as the Energy Charter Treaty (Bamberger et al., 2001), and the issue of how energy markets might be opened up to international trade has been on the agenda of the 'Doha Round' of global negotiations.

Center for Clean Air Policy

CCAP has also been actively involved in the development of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol. The center helped to design the rules for the CDM through work with developing countries. The Canadian Government hired CCAP to facilitate an informal workshop on streamlining the CDM in preparation for the United Nations Convention on Climate Change in Montreal, where CDM strengthening was a key issue. CCAP gathered negotiators from 30 developed and developing countries to discuss technical and legal issues surrounding development and implementation of the CDM. CCAP continues to develop the debate between developed and developing countries on the CDM.

Cascade and Transition

If a critical mass of agents accept and act in accordance with a rule calling for universal participation, agents that follow a rule calling for less than universal participation will find themselves unable to reach their goals in the ozone depletion and climate change negotiations by acting through ill-fitting rule models. The altered social context (notions of appropriate levels of participation) induces other agents to alter their rule models through negative evaluation. Even though participation is socially constructed, it has real consequences. The understanding of participation that agents have in their rule model and that exists in the social context shapes how agents address the ozone depletion and climate change problems. If an agent is out of step with the intersubjectively understood participation requirement, she is unlikely to behave correctly, and this will lead to negative evaluations of her rule model. Through adaptation, states not in the critical mass will quickly...

Setting Realistic Goals for Restoration Within a Landscape

Ferent outputs required from most landscapes. In a landscape context, restoration goals for conservation organisations will often be closely linked to other activities relating to protected areas and sustainable forest management. Thus, restoration may seek to complement a protected area or relieve pressure on it. Equally, restoration can happen within and around the estate of a managed forest. Forest restoration goals within a landscape generally have to address both social and ecological needs they may, for instance, relate to restoration of species' habitat in one location but also to the establishment of fuelwood plantations elsewhere. In all cases, the key will be to attempt to balance those goals to provide optimal benefits (also see Goals and Targets of Forest Landscape Restoration, Negotiations and Conflict Management, and Addressing Trade-Offs in Forest Landscape Restoration).

Stage Two Lockin around Universal Participation

The NLC framework further hypothesizes that after the transition from North-only to universal participation in the ozone depletion negotiations, the observed lock in that influenced the early climate change negotiations arose through internalization the fourth stage of the NLC. In the internalization stage, the new idea becomes an intersubjective reality it becomes natural and locked in. This is hypothesized to have occurred between the ozone depletion negotiations and the climate change negotiations. Universal participation becomes an ingrained part of agent rule models constituting identities, interests, and behaviors. The new norm will become ingrained and natural as its dictates are followed and positive feedback reinforces the actions taken. Once multiple agents have been persuaded or socialized to include a new rule in their internal models, that rule must produce behavior that is positively evaluated or the rule will not continue to be used and the norm will erode. Through...

Making energy and climate policy A multilevel challenge

This chapter has sought to highlight how international factors impact upon national energy policies. The complexity of addressing climate and energy policy issues is compounded by the fact that these different tiers are closely intertwined. Taking the players covered in this chapter, it is possible to see how multilateral negotiations on climate were influenced by the engagement of the EU as a bloc, which in turn was shaped by member states (such as the UK). Equally, the multilateral agreements facilitated the development of EU implementation procedures (such as the EU ETS) which then were implemented by member states. However, just as these interactions can be seen as creating a virtuous cycle of policy development, so problems at different levels can undermine the pursuit of policy. Problems in securing commitments to Kyoto and postKyoto arrangements at the global level may affect and be affected by difficult intra-EU negotiations, which in turn may be adversely shaped by poor...

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends

International negotiations and domestic policy debates have focused largely on reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, both because these emissions account for a large fraction of total GHG emissions and because they can be estimated fairly accurately based on fuel-use data. This report follows suit by focusing primarily on energy-related CO2 emissions. It is important to recognize, however, that there are other important sources of CO2 (such as tropical deforestation), and there are other compounds in the atmosphere that affect the earth's radiative balance and thus play a role in climate change. This includes long-lived GHGs such as methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated compounds (which arise from a variety of human activities including agriculture and industrial activities). It also includes shorter-lived gases that are precursors to tropospheric ozone (which directly affects human health, in addition to influencing climate), and a variety of aerosols that can exert either...

Capacity for Learning by Doing

The above consideration may suggest a need for heavy planning processes, but this should be avoided at all costs. It is much better to start immediately with a few experimental restoration activities on the basis of outcomes of the initial discussions amongst stakeholders. These trials will establish the credibility of outside stakeholders and will permit learning. They will greatly enrich ongoing stakeholder negotiations that should continue throughout the pro-gramme.The initial objective should be to build a community of interest groups that can experiment and learn together.

Integrating Climate Policies with Development Priorities

As climate change negotiations advance, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a greater need to shift the focus on developing countries since the international negotiations have not adequately addressed their priorities for sustainable development, support for adaptation activities, aid assistance and technology transfer. This is because affordable and accessible modern energy services along with poverty reduction are essential to achieve sustainable development. Lack of access to these services adversely affects public health, constrains educational opportunities and impedes human development and well-being of nearly 1.6 billion people in developing countries. However, the proponents of climate change argue that affordable energy in the form that is currently available is also the cause of climate change. Hence, it is important to integrate development policies with A pledge-based approach by countries with bilateral and multilateral funding can bring in more success.50 A...

Modeling the Norm Life Cycle

Second, simulation analysis provides me with a social laboratory where I can experiment with the processes contained within the NLC. These experiments point to further insights that enhance the case studies of the ozone depletion and climate change negotiations and they facilitate outlining the boundary conditions of the verbal framework. When will a norm entrepreneur be able to catalyze the emergence of norms Under what conditions will norms emerge Modeling the norm life cycle is a rigorous way to find answers to these questions. While the model developed below is abstract and not designed to simulate actual negotiations, it does test the verbal model in crucial ways. Most importantly it explores how norm entrepreneurs influence the connections between norms and actors.

Afforestation and Reforestations the Only Options in the CDM

In the first commitment period the role of non-Annex B countries under the CDM has been limited to A R. The Marrakesh Accords also placed limitations on the amount of credits claimable by Annex B Parties to 1 percent times 5 of their 1990 emissions (or 5 percent of their 1990 emissions for the period 2008-2012) (UNEP Risoe, 2008a UNFCCC, 2006b). Under the CDM, A R projects are restricted to those that would not have occurred without CDM financing and to areas that were not forested prior to 1990. Negotiations on how to treat sources and sinks in the CDM continued until rules governing sinks were finally agreed at COP 9, in Milan, in 2003. Meanwhile, Canada had proposed insurance and protected status for forestry projects to solve the permanence issue, while Colombia had proposed that carbon credits would expire when carbon is readmitted from the atmosphere. In the Colombian proposal the holding country would need to increase carbon emissions by that amount in its national inventory or...

Modeling the Kyoto Options for Forestry

For an explanation of the tortuousness and length of the negotiations over the inclusion of LULUCF in the CDM and its rules and modalities, we turn to Jung's (2005) analysis of the economic and country-by-country impacts of the different policy options that were on the table. The activities that Jung interpreted as falling under the definitions of A R under the Kyoto Protocol are as follows reviewed the positions taken during LULUCF negotiations by different countries. In a number of instances the country positions were in sympathy with their profits and losses expected with LULUCF inclusion.

Why is energy efficiency important

About 1 per year would be sustainable over the next century employing only those emission control policies internationally agreed to at the 1992 Rio Climate Treaty negotiations. Various studies model or otherwise forecast long-term rates of energy intensity decline ranging from no change to greater than 2 per year. Others point to historical precedents for rapid efficiency improvement over shorter time scales of about 3 per year in the US from 1979-1986 (Lovins, 1998).

Explanation of the Issue

Forest landscape restoration approaches use the restoration of forest functions as an entry point to identify and build a diversity of social, ecological, and economic benefits at a landscape scale. As such they rely on achieving broad consensus on a range of restoration interventions from a variety of stakeholders, who may have very different perceptions of what forest landscapes should provide. This requires effective negotiation among stakeholders whose negotiation skills, interests, needs, and power are often markedly different. However, the success of forest landscape restoration approaches often hinges on how successfully such negotiations are conducted. The principles of forest landscape restoration, therefore, aim at restoring forests to provide

Negotiation Health Warning

Finally, it is important to note that like other aspects of conflict management, negotiation is a culturally bound process. Different societies, groups, agencies, and organisations all have different cultures and approaches to managing conflict. While much of the literature on negotiations is Western and business-oriented, there needs to be a high degree of cultural sensitivity and contextually located understanding to proceed with negotiations, especially where many different cultures are involved in multi-stakeholder negotiations.

Liberalised complexities and new energy agendas A UK illustration

The inter-organisational complexity of existing governance arrangements was revealed by reviews leading to the UK Energy White Paper in 2003 (DTI, 2003c see Chapter 5 for details on this and the subsequent 2006 Energy Review). One outcome was the formation of a Sustainable Energy Policy Network aiming to coordinate information and initiatives across government and industry. In practice, policy development often bypasses or merely informs the Network, and instead involves negotiations and transactions through a kaleidoscope of networks involving government, business, and civil society organisations. Coordination, where it happens at all, is far from smooth and seamless since energy policy is riddled with competing agendas, diverse interests, and contradictory logics. As a consequence of this fragmentation, incentives

Changing the Forest Policy in Bulgaria Thanks to a Cost Benefit Analysis182

Sometimes it will be sufficient to remove, reduce, or mitigate a particular threat or pressure on forests in a landscape to set them on a positive path toward regeneration. Because threats often originate from political or economic decisions, changing them may require significant lobbying, backed up by negotiations, research, and building of strategic partnerships. If these threats can be reduced or removed, natural regeneration can often be significant (if there are no other biophysical constraining factors).

Adaptation practices options and constraints

Integrated Water Resources Management should be an instrument to explore adaptation measures to climate change, but so far is in its infancy. Successful integrated water management strategies include, among others capturing society's views, reshaping planning processes, coordinating land and water resources management, recognizing water quantity and quality linkages, conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater, protecting and restoring natural systems, and including consideration of climate change. In addition, integrated strategies explicitly address impediments to the flow of information. A fully integrated approach is not always needed but, rather, the appropriate scale for integration will depend on the extent to which it facilitates effective action in response to specific needs (Moench et al., 2003). In particular, an integrated approach to water management could help to resolve conflicts among competing water users. In several places in the western USA, water managers and...

Roots of climate scepticism

Environmentalism posed a particular threat because it called into question the benign nature of the system not from the perspective of an oppressed group but from the perspective of science, the very basis of Western civilisation. In the emergence of the 'green scare' the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 was a critical moment, one that brought to a head three decades of rising environmental concerns around the world.3 Attended by 108 heads of state or government, it put environmentalism at the centre of global action and, among other important agreements, adopted the Framework Convention on Climate Change which to this day provides the architecture for international negotiations on climate change. The Earth Summit not only highlighted the growing body of science that identified environmental decline but signalled a marked shift in values.

The International Geophysical Year 195758

The Arctic was no longer in focus the same way as in the previous polar years, even if new forms of logistic support made it possible to set up research stations in new places, including stations on the pack ice. Instead, emphasis was placed on the Antarctic, which until this time had been inaccessible to any large-scale scientific investigations. Air transport and modern snow tractors had changed the odds for successful scientific work on this continent and the International Geophysical Year was the starting point for serious Antarctic research. In the Antarctic, the International Geophysical Year also marked the beginnings of political cooperation, and as a direct result, negotiations began on what became the Antarctic Treaty.

Identifying Goals For Climate Policy A Pluralistic Approach

Engagement of public discourse about both the consequences of different actions and the applicable social values, especially where operable norms are not clear-cut or are conflicting. This is a step in explicitly acknowledging that the decision process cannot be purely scientific. The public engagement can take various forms, from educational programs to multiple-stakeholder negotiations to interagency debates characterized by disclosure and electoral accountability.

Emissions Trading Takes

Once emissions trading became a formal part of the negotiations, however, it became clear that the equitable part of the equation was to be eliminated. This was largely a result of a diplomatic impasse it provoked. Northern countries baulked at the financial transfers implied, while Southern countries resisted steadfastly the implicit limit on their emissions. The legacy of widening inequalities produced this impasse in climate diplomacy. But it also resulted from the ideological priority attached to efficiency and the way that markets are assumed to produce such efficiency, an idea that was more important to powerful actors than the plea for equity. So emissions trading emerged as the preferred option because of its ideological fit with neoliberal logic. But it was also more successful because of its fit with the interests of newly dominant financial actors. The USA first formally proposed emissions trading in the UN negotiations in December 1996, and initially there was much...

Initial Conditions A Northonly Global Response

The stories of the normative context and U.S. rule models are the empirical target for the NLC framework. This discussion cuts in to the dynamic process of coevolution (between U.S. rule models and the normative context) in 1986.5 By 1986 ozone depletion had been on the international political agenda for five years and the international scientific agenda for ten. In March 1985, twenty-one states originally signed the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The Vienna Convention is a framework convention that outlined the international community's understanding that ozone depletion was a problem and erected the infrastructure for dealing with the problem in the years to come. Embedded in the convention is a call to negotiate specific protocols for reducing ozone-depleting chemicals.6 These protocol negotiations took place in four official rounds between 1986 and 1987 (Geneva 12 86 , Vienna 2 87 , Geneva 4 87 , and Montreal 9 87 ) and culminated in the adoption of the...

Ihe Evolution of US Rule Models and the Negotiation of the Montreal Protocol

In 1986, the U.S. rule models, as they pertained to participation, matched the normative political context. The United States was not concerned with universal participation and was content with North-only negotiations. Specifically, the United States defined the ozone depletion problem as a global problem requiring a Northern solution. The pertinent participation rule was If faced with a global environmental problem (in this case ozone depletion), then seek a negotiated solution with the major sources of the problem (Northern states). This position was made manifest in the resounding lack of significant mention of Southern states or their needs heading into the Montreal negotiations. a decline in concern about ozone depletion, as scientific evidence pointed to the possibility that ozone depletion was much less of a problem than at first thought. By 1984, however, the United States joined Canada and the Nordic countries (Toronto Group) in pushing (unsuccessfully) for international...

Evolution of the IPCC

There is a reciprocal relationship between the IPCC and the UNFCCC. The first IPCC assessment and a supplementary report in 1992 played important roles in the initial negotiations for the Convention, and the second assessment in relation to the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol. Conferences of the Parties have also in agreements referred to the IPCC reports in relation to basing decisions on the latest scientific, technical and socioeconomic information. Nevertheless, at the first Conference of the Parties, the UNFCCC created its own unit for analyzing technical and scientific questions - the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA). SBSTA uses the IPCC as one of its inputs but has also come with requests to the IPCC for in-depth reports on specific topics.149 One such request was a report to follow up on the focus on vulnerability at the global level in Working Group II's Second Assessment Report in

Scientific networks and new political opportunities

In Antarctica, the International Geophysical Year in 1957 58 led to formalized international research cooperation in the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research under the auspices of ICSU. At that time, similar research cooperation in the Arctic was prevented by the Cold-War tensions that had shifted the International Geophysical Year research focus from the Arctic to Antarctica. However, the wish for pan-Arctic research cooperation remained alive within the polar research community and among non-governmental scientific networks.154 Therefore, scientists with an Arctic interest were quick at picking up signals from the new political developments in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s -President Mikhail Gorbachov's mission towards glasnost and perestroika. For example, in connection with a meeting in 1986, there were informal talks about these new signals and according to one interviewee's account the participants agreed that it was time for the Arctic countries to start discussing...

Adaptation in the Agricultural Sector

For most of the decade since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the emphasis in research, research assessments, and negotiations has been placed heavily on mitigation rather than adaptation. Mitigation refers to actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions or sequester carbon in soils and biomass, and has been addressed by the Kyoto Protocol. More recently the negotiations at meetings of the Conference of the Parties are beginning to focus attention on adaptation. Adaptation refers to adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. It refers to changes in processes, practices, and structures to moderate potential damages or to benefit from opportunities associated with climate change. (IPCC, 2001, p. 879).

Political cooperation

States were the main actors, especially Finland and Canada.174 Their diplomatic activities culminated in the Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment in 1991, the so-called Rovaniemi Declaration, and the creation of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) as a forum for collaboration around transboundary environmental issues. Scientific networks may have played more of a role in the initiation of the AEPS than is apparent from Young's account of the formation of this regime, but it did not operate as an epistemic community presenting a common solution or perspective to a problem. Rather, it may have provided a networks that included the Soviet Union, which could be used to scout out the potential for political negotiations. A person who took part in the initial discussions has described himself feeling a bit like an experimental rabbit let out in the man ge for the bureaucrats and the foreign minis

The Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy

Tennberg has, in an analysis of Arctic environmental cooperation, characterized the early work of AMAP as legitimizing the existing situation and the lack of special measures to protect the Arctic. She contrasts AMAP's conclusion that the Arctic remains a clean environment to the summaries presented by other concurrent reports on the Arctic environment, which pointed to threats posed by resource exploitation and climate change.182 However, AMAP itself has highlighted the role the report played in negotiations on the UN ECE LRTAP Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants and for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.183 This latter view has support from other observers.184 In particular, AMAP together with the Northern Contaminants Programme in Canada provided a knowledge base and network from which indigenous peoples could act in the international arena.185 It also led to the Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollution of the Arctic.

Levels and Types of Adaptation

Despite such obstacles the record so far seems to suggest that the prospects for agriculture in the face of climate change are good at the global level, but that severe local disruptions and inequalities are possible, even likely. This diagnosis suggests the need to pay more attention to national policy and global negotiations in order to alleviate inequalities between and within nations. The very success of technical adaptation at the local level in some places is creating problems that need to be addressed by national governments acting in their own areas of jurisdiction, and by international agreements directed towards the stability of the global system. To date adaptation has been treated largely as a matter of measures to be adopted at the local level. There is also a global dimension to adaptation which we neglect at some risk. From the perspective of climate change and development the place where local and global converge is at the level of national policy.

First Policies Measures and Instruments

As became obvious with the advent of general circulation models calculating global warming near the surface due to an enhanced greenhouse effect in the 1980s in so-called equilibrium runs for doubled CO2 concentration, an assessment of knowledge on climate change as input information for political decision making was urgently needed. WMO und UNEP therefore formed an intergovernmental body that should be able to give such an authoritative view. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) became right from the beginning in November 1988 such an authoritative voice. Because it was fortunately dominated by leading scientists, who were publishing already in October 1990 the first full assessment report and a summary for policy makers, that set the stage for the later Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). Since then IPCC became through its further regular assessments in 1995, 2001 and 2007 a shining example for proper assessments of knowledge in a science area. As IPCC...

An Idealized CO2 Capandtrade System with Land Use Sinks

The problem Kyoto negotiators ran into was that they agreed to the burden on fossil emission reductions first. They then needed to produce language and processes to make sure that sinks credits would really be reductions beyond a baseline otherwise the situation in which 'hot air' from sinks credits might cover all emissions increases would have been a distinct possibility. As the negotiations occurred in the run-up to signing the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, because they had little data on sinks in 1990 or projected levels in 2010, it was impossible to adjust the allowance levels to take these into consideration. At the time, the chosen approach - caps on fossil emissions and sinks allowed in as credits against the cap - was perhaps the best that could be done. The approach, however, has left us with a legacy of poorly defined categories of land use activities.

The Evolution of the Normative Context The Breakdown of North Only Participation on the Road to Montreal

The normative context that the United States acted within was relatively stable in 1986-87, though the seeds for the major transition to universal participation were sown. The negotiations that would yield the Montreal Protocol in 1987 transpired with a clear, intersubjective understanding that ozone depletion was a problem that required Northern participation in negotiations and solutions. Southern nations made up less than one-third of the participants at all three of the pre-Montreal meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group that constructed the Montreal Protocol. The United States, EU, and the rest of the Northern states were mainly concerned about negotiating and reaching a bargain among themselves. Through the summer of 1987, both the North and the South considered the manner of negotiation to be appropriate. Consequently, the actions of both Southern and Northern states in 1986-87 served to reify and reinforce the normative context, rather than change it. However, the North-only...

Climate Protection Goals in Europe and Germany

Negotiations for binding measures for the post-Kyoto period have only started in 2005 and should lead - as stipulated within the Kyoto Protocol - to new measures until the 15th Conference of the Parties to UNFCCC in 2009 in Copenhagen. From scientific calculations it became clear that the maximum tolerable mean global warming of 2 C within the 21st century translates into at least halfing global emissions until 2050, which again translates into 80 percent emission reduction for industrialized countries until this date. Since the EU has set the 2 C goal, the Kyoto commitments can only be a start. At COP 12 of UNFCCC in Nairobi in December 2006 negotiations have led to the following tentative goals, only expressed under conditions of similar reactions by other parties

Policy Oriented Heuristic Models

With common situations or common interests (such as the developed nations), takes as input the commitments to GHG emissions reductions each bloc might be willing to make, and generates projected emissions, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, temperature, and sea level rise over the next 100 years. The underlying model is simple enough to be used in real time by policy makers to ask what if questions that can inform negotiations. It can also be used in combination with gaming simulations in which individuals or teams take on the roles of blocs of countries and negotiate with each other to simulate not only the climate system but also the international negotiation process. When such simplified models are used, however, it is important to ensure that the simplified representations of complex processes are backed up, supported, and verified by more comprehensive models that can simulate the full range of critical processes in both the Earth system and human systems.

Minimizing And Sharing The Burden

Fairness is central to any multilateral regime, that is, any agreement between multiple nation-states to address and resolve a common problem. Climate change mitigation is among the key global environmental concerns that will require a common agenda, approach, and set of actions by the community of nations. To that end, global climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) are centered on establishing a multilateral framework to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all nations and to help those who would be affected by climate change. Although intertwined with issues (e.g., energy, transport, water, food, and forests) that are fundamental to the economic interests of all nations, the international effort to address climate change has hitherto met only with limited success. Negotiations have been confined to the limited goal of

The Governance Of Ozone Depletion Ii Amending The Montreal Protocol Evaluation and Assessment The Evolution of US Rule

Through Montreal, the North-only negotiation rule model structured U.S. interactions in the negotiations. The United States formulated a negotiating position that ignored the South and focused on the EU. The result of this position (through intervening interactions) was the MP. When the United States began the MP negotiations, its rule model matched the normative context there was a good fit between the two. In the months preceding Montreal, however, the normative political context had begun to change because of Southern practices. Southern states became interested in the issue and, because of UNEP and Tolba, were able to participate. Now interested in the process, however, major Southern states expressed dissatisfaction with the provisions of the MP and refused to sign. Thus, very quickly after the international community agreed to the MP, U.S. rule models diverged from the normative context. The emerging critical mass of Southern agents altered the intersubjective understanding of...

How to resolve the problem of determining direct human responsibility for sequestration

As previously noted, the concern of limiting sinks to direct human action as in Kyoto would appear to arise from the fact that negotiators focused first on emissions and reduction goals, and having agreed to those, tried to bring sinks into the format. With that approach, making sure sinks credits were for uptake beyond 'business as usual' was a necessary consideration. In retrospect, however, this gave rise to language that has proved nearly impossibly to implement. The problematic language could

The Influence of Universal Participation Amending the Protocol

The EU became an issue leader on the ozone depletion issue after signing the MP. With increased scientific certainty, industry lost a great deal of influence over the European delegations, and the EU took a much greener stance, calling for accelerated cutbacks along with the United States. The EU was also concerned with universal participation, and it was initially more willing than the United States to entertain funding solutions. In addition, UNEP continued to structure the negotiations in a South-North manner. At the first meeting of the parties to the MP, Tolba laid out the work ahead and recommended that the parties undertake The international process of adjusting the MP began when Britain hosted a Saving the Ozone conference in March 1989 that was attended by 123 states.170 The United States, with its changed definition of appropriate participation levels, did not have to convince the South to partici-pate the South was already at the table. Substantively, at London the United...

Justice In The Climate Context

Thus, central to the justice issues are both intragenerational and inter-generational equity concerns, this chapter focuses on intragenerational distributive justice, that is, distribution of emissions entitlements among nations in the time period beyond 2012 (the term of the Kyoto Protocol). Immediate global negotiations and actions are centered on this issue. In time, though, intergenerational equity will become increasingly important in multilateral negotiations.

New Normative Context for Global Responses

The story of the normative context in this period is less convoluted than the story of the actual negotiations, though the two are inextricably linked. In 1988, multiple states quickly acceded to the new norm, a cascade expected by the constructivist complex adaptive framework. The South emerged as a critical mass altering the normative context for the rest of the states negotiating the ozone agreements. Their altered practices taking an active interest in the negotiations and not signing the MP had a profound effect on what manner of negotiation would be considered appropriate in the 1988-1990 period. The North could no longer expect to achieve Southern cooperation without addressing Southern concerns without Southern participation in the process. In 1988, Northern states came to recognize the appropriateness of universal negotiations as well. The United States (and other Northern states) replaced its North-only rule model with one that called for universal negotiations. In 1989, the...

Equity Principles And Perspectives

Equity is vital for avoiding conflicts in that it can reconcile multiple interests, perspectives, needs, and diversity - a precondition for constructing a robust multilateral framework. Emissions profiles of developed and developing countries, however, reflect very different histories. To accommodate this diversity, emissions limitations negotiations have followed a two-track approach, as described in the Kyoto Protocol. The emissions rights of developed nations are grandfathered in proportion to their emissions at an agreed time. Developing countries are excluded from binding commitments, keeping in view their low emissions history and compromised ability to pay. Critics have argued that the grandfathered emissions distribute higher entitlements to present polluters. On this line of reasoning, past dated grandfathering would disfavor developing countries since their emissions are historically low and would only rise in the future. Since the Kyoto Protocol excludes developing...

Conclusion Empirics Theories And Models

Necessary participation was and remains a constructed political choice rather than a natural or rational one. Ozone depletion began as a global problem requiring negotiations among a small subset of states. By 1990, this view of the problem was obsolete. The transition that occurred was table enlargement from twenty-five seats at Geneva in 1986 to ninety-six in London in 1990. The key to understanding the historically dependent normative nature of participation is realizing that neither the thirty in 1986, nor the one hundred in 1990 were objectively determined by the nature of the ozone depletion problem or through rational choice. In 1986, the South produced 5.5 percent of the world's ozone-depleting substances and in 1990 this had only risen to 7.5 percent.205 It was not the South's production or consumption that concerned the North in 1989-90. It was the potential of the South to do future damage a potential that remained unchanged in the 1986-1990 period. However, in 1986 the...

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC httpwwwipccchindexhtml

IPCC provides scientific, technical, and socioeconomic advice to the world community, and in particular to the 170-plus Parties to the UNFCCC, through its periodic assessment reports on the state of knowledge of causes of climate change, its potential impacts, and options for response strategies. IPCC completed its First Assessment Report in 1990, which provided an overall policy framework for addressing the climate change issue. It played an important role in establishing the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted in 1992 and entered into force in 1994, by the UN General Assembly. Its Second Assessment Report in 1995 provided key input to the negotiations, which led to the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC in 1997. The Third Assessment Report, finalized in 2001, concentrates on new findings since 1995, and highlights regional (in addition to the global)-scale models.

Equity Procedural And Consequential

Two types of equity (Banuri et al., 1996) underlie the multilateral frameworks that have been discussed so far - procedural and consequential. Procedural equity refers to the impartiality and fairness'' in the process of delivering and administering justice. Principles like inclusive participation of affected parties in justice proceedings or equal treatment of all before the law reflect the notion of procedural equity. In multilateral processes, procedural equity concerns on the part of developing countries often arise not from their formal exclusion from multilateral negotiations but, rather, from their inability to influence the process due to a poor information base and weak bargaining power.

Global Climate Change

Most academics, policymakers, and scientists uncritically acknowledge that the climate change problem requires a universal solution. I am not convinced that such an underlying understanding had to arise in the late 1980s and early 1990s given only the characteristics of the problem or the strategic interests of the parties involved. I seek to explain the assumed need for universal participation, and I reiterate the argument that referring to the scientifically defined characteristics of the issue or relying on rational choice are both insufficient. Evolving political and normative conceptions generated in the ozone depletion negotiations determined what the global response to climate change would be, not the unadorned characteristics of the problem.

Science and Universal Participation

Global, universal negotiations (or that the United States would consider any other options). When scientists proclaim the global nature of climate change, it seems natural to hear a U.S. policymaker claim that climate change is, by definition, an international problem which must be addressed among nations,6 or that a criterion for a successful climate negotiation is an integrated treaty, designed to involve all nations and dynamically reflect and incorporate each nation's unique circumstances into the development of a truly global response strategy.7 In addition, the more important factor was a prior understanding of climate change as a universal problem, fostered in the ozone depletion negotiations. Such an understanding did not exist in the early ozone negotiations even though scientists stressed the global nature of ozone depletion. As noted in chapter 2, science rarely, if ever, consists of a single discourse (or alternatively, multiple discourses can be constructed from the...

Efficiency Alone The Neoclassical Perspective

A principal objective of the multilateral negotiations is to determine the norms for using the atmosphere, a global common. In a celebrated paper, Coase (1960) cogently argued that, in the absence of transaction costs, the market exchange would lead to efficient resource allocation regardless of the distribution of rights. The neoclassical economic interpretation of Coase's argument, theoretically articulated as the Coase theorem,'' leads to the conclusion that free markets would minimize total costs, including economic and social costs. The corollary of the proof is that equity is immaterial to socially optimal arrangements (or, alternatively, that market efficiency and equity are separate issues). To neoclassical economics, then, market efficiency alone is relevant and equity is irrelevant. This perspective gained ground over the past decade with emergence of the new world economic order. Under its influence, the climate debate remained restricted to the agenda to develop a...

Strategy and Universal Participation

In chapter 2, I argued that universal negotiations are not rational from the standpoint of effectiveness or efficiency, and it appeared doubtful that they were a strategic choice of the United States, designed to slow or stall the negotiations by adding extra negotiators and issues. The latter of these two possibilities is the stickiest issue. As the climate change issue rose in prominence in the late 1980s, it became clear that the United States did not favor aggressive action to address climate change (a reluctance discussed below). If we take the findings from positive political economy (or practical negotiation experience) to heart namely, that large negotiations are inefficient and ineffective then it does seem plausible that the United States would press for universal negotiations in order to slow cripple a treaty that it did not desire in the first place. Further, as hegemon, the United States would have the power to sway the foundations of the global governance of climate...

Analysis of the overview process

The scientific community, as it was embodied in ACIA's Assessment Steering Committee, could keep the controversies in the policy process and attempts from the United States to delay the process at bay. This action can be understood, as Gieryn uses the term, as effective boundary work, i.e. the attribution of selected characteristics to the institution of science for purposes of constructing a social boundary that distinguishes some intellectual activity as non-science.120 In the case of the ACIA, policy makers may have wanted to be sure that they would not be forced by science into making policy decisions that were not the right ones within their sphere of analysis. Scientists, on the other hand, did not want to be limited by political sensitivities connected to either global climate negotiations or internal national politics when describing the impacts of climate change.

Equity For Efficiency The Developing Country Perspective

Limitations of the neoclassical perspective are, however, exposed when one realizes that free markets with no transaction costs do not exist. This global real-politik rests on foundations of power (not freedoms), abilities (not needs), and capacities (not vulnerabilities). Climate negotiations to date are confined to the mitigation efficiency agenda, as it suits the interest of powerful developed countries. Climate mitigation actions, however, require universal cooperation. Those who are outside the agreement could benefit in situations involving competition, as their emissions are not penalized. The nations facing impacts would cooperate only if fairly compensated. The parties, thus, not only have cooperative needs to minimize the global burden but competing needs to minimize their own share of the burden. The market efficiency-oriented global mitigation assessments arrive at the obvious conclusion that the cheapest mitigation actions can only be carried out in developing countries...

Adapting to the crisis

A very similar kind of prescient acuity to the possibility for real harm from the looming threat of climate catastrophe compelled AOSIS negotiators more than two decades later, in 2009, to make the case that any mechanism for maintaining flexibility in the climate agreement should aim at stabilizing the At the 2009 climate negotiations in Bonn, Germany, a leading delegate from Micronesia offered the following

The Policy Drafting Team

The end result of these discussions was a Policy Drafting Team that was to be co-chaired by the chairs of AMAP and CAFF. Each country was invited to nominate a person, as were each of the Permanent Participants, for a total of fourteen individuals.139 One of the co-chairs of the Policy Drafting Team has described the group as consisting of three kinds of participants. Some countries had nominated climate negotiators while others had nominated science-policy oriented people, and the Permanent Participants were the watch-dogs over the process.140 For example, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark had climate negotiators in the group while the United States had chosen a person outside the climate policy community.141 The organizations with observer status in the AMAP Working Group and CAFF Working Group had no representation in the Policy Drafting Team. This includes IASC but also the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). A representative for the WWF has commented that this made the process very...

The Foundations Of The Global Governance Of Climate Change Ihe Initial Normative Context Universal Participation

Nineteen-eighty-eight also saw the inauguration of the IPCC in November. UNEP and the WMO created the panel to research and report the current state of climate change knowledge. Thirty states undertook this largely scientific enterprise (eleven developing, including the crucial Southern states India, China, and Brazil) in three working groups the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change, and potential policy responses to climate change.45 The express purpose of the IPCC was to provide a firm foundation for future negotiations. The North-heavy makeup of the panel reflected the current state of climate science expertise, rather than an understanding of appropriate participation. However, the IPCC was not immune to the alterations of the normative context ongoing in the ozone negotiations. At a 1989 conference in Noordwijk, Netherlands, sixty-eight states (roughly half North and half South) convened the first ministerial-level meeting on climate change. This meeting was...

Engaging Developing Countries Alternate Approaches

The vital questions before the climate negotiators are not whether developing countries should mitigate or how much they should mitigate but, rather, who would pay for mitigation actions and how to ensure that mitigation actions would not hamper the achievement of development goals. The former questions belong to the domain of efficiency and the latter to that of equity.

Analysis of the policy process

During the policy process, it became increasingly clear that the Senior Arctic Officials reasserted their prerogative to have the initiative when it came to policy recommendations. The United States drove this issue, but appears to have had agreement on the basic principle from several other countries. Supporting this interpretation is the fact that some countries sent high-level climate negotiators to the Policy Drafting Team from the beginning. One can speculate why the United States did not, but based on interviews with people involved in the process, it appears to have been a misjudgement of the role of this group. The shift came after the Svalbard informal meeting, at which the US chief climate negotiator was present and where the United States took several steps to keep from being bound by the ACIA scientists and indigenous peoples' presentation of how Arctic climate change should be framed. For countries whose climate policies were in line with the scientific findings, such a...

The Development And Climate Paradigm

Climate change interfaces with various societal and natural processes and, consequently, with development processes. Development and climate intersect along two broad dimensions. First, the localized impacts of climate change like water shortages, agricultural disruption, and coastal flooding pose serious long-term threats to development. These impacts will be felt disproportionately in developing countries. Second, development activities emit GHGs, which are driving forces of climate change. Developing countries, particularly those that are least developed, have expressed considerable concern about their vulnerability to climate impacts. Since the impacts are considered a future problem, climate negotiations have concentrated on emissions mitigation. Balance in emphasis between mitigation and adaptation must be restored. Aligning development and climate actions in developing countries is the most practical and effective way to restore the balance and ensure the participation of...

The Initial US Rule Models Uncertainty Economics and Universality

The rule model shaping U.S. negotiating positions and behavior remained remarkably stable in the years that climate change emerged as a political issue.67 There were two components to the U.S. rules. First, and underlying all else, the United States was committed to universal participation in negotiations and efforts to address climate change. Universal participation was positively reinforced during the latter ozone depletion negotiations and this understanding matched the social context. Positive reinforcement combined with a low social complexity context led the United States to lock in around universal participation for climate change. Scientific consensus grew in the 1988-1990 period as did talk of international negotiations and conventions. At the same time, U.S. government scientists and agencies contributed to the accumulation of scientific knowledge as well as the sense of urgency. Stephen Schneider (National Center for Atmospheric Research) testified to Congress that the only...

The present state of play

The Security Council has what is known as 'the permanent five members' (China, France, the Russian Federation, the UK and US). These countries play a significant role in causing the world's environmental and development problems, and have a veto on possible actions. They account for around 60 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions. We argue that the Security Council is not the place to discuss these issues yet. It may become an action of last resort if negotiations fail through other multilateral processes.

Climate Impacts in the Developing World A Case Study of the Small Island States

The disproportionate vulnerability of developing countries to climate change, the appropriate responsibility for both developing countries and those with high emissions in moderating and adapting to these impacts, and the appropriate role of developing nations in limiting future emissions are all highly contentious issues in global politics. As such, these issues tend to lead to protracted meetings and delays in any nation undertaking any sort of measures. Only by understanding and coming to agreement on these vulnerabilities, their causes and what actions need to be taken will international negotiations be able to move forward.

The Initial Influence Of Universal Participation Development And Us Strategy

The negotiations toward a climate change convention began in February 1991, but as Matthew Paterson makes clear, it seems inadequate to take the situation in early 1991 as a given, as if no politics had occurred before then.88 The politics that occurred before then constructed and strengthened a social context whereby universal participation was deemed a requirement. This vision of a global response for climate change had enormous consequences. In this section I highlight two of them

Universal Participation and the Prevalence of Development Concerns

From the outset, it was clear that the climate change negotiations would be universal and that South-North issues would be at the top of the agenda. Curiously, from a strategic bargaining (or rational coercive bargaining) standpoint, the North accepted the principles of North-first action and of development assistance (side payments of financial and technological transfers) without any bargaining even though the South lacked the bargaining leverage to force linkage of development concerns to the issue of climate change. Developmental assistance was a natural inclusion and as one observer notes A critical reason for Developing Country participation in the FCCC negotiations was their understanding from the international political declarations in the pre 1990 phase that there would be substantial technological and financial assistance for coping with the problem and in dealing with its effects.89 The environmental protection development linkage that permeated the FCCC negotiations would...

Universal Participation and the Development of US Stalling Strategies

Before the formal negotiations convened in 1991, the consequences of the U.S. understanding of climate change as a requiring a universal response The United States stonewalled any calls for binding emission reductions. The United States stood virtually alone among Northern states through most of the FCCC negotiations in its stance against binding targets. U.S. refusal to consider binding emissions raised suspicions in the South that the North-first principle enshrined in the governance of ozone depletion was at risk. This suspicion was enhanced by U.S. hinting that a global response entailed universal commitments (i.e., that the South should take on responsibilities as well), not just universal participation in the negotiations. The United States began to frame universal participation as meaning shared responsibility, in contrast to the North-first understanding inherited from ozone depletion. This hinting was a foreshadowing of the transition in universal participation to come in the...

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FAO

In the area of climate change, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) contributes to the debate by assessing the available scientific evidence, participating in observing and monitoring systems, collecting unique global datasets, promoting adaptation and mitigation practices, and by providing a neutral forum for negotiations and technical discussions on climate change and agriculture. (FAO, 2008)

The Governance Process Unfolds Negotiating The Fccc

The international community began negotiations toward a framework convention in early 1991, with a goal of producing an agreement in time for the Earth Summit to be held in June 1992. The normative context for these negotiations mirrored the results of the ozone depletion negotia-tions the universal participation norm dominated and states understood (for the most part) that a global response entailed North-first action, and Northern support for Southern participation. The U.S. rule model for climate change called for universal participation while the United States simultaneously emphasized the uncertainty in climate science and the economic costs of action to justify a lack of commitment to binding emission reductions. It was with this rule model, and in this context that the United States hosted INC I in February 1991. It was at INC I when the international community and the United States began to reap the benefits and disadvantages of universal participation. These negotiations...

Regulatory Phase Negotiation And Elaboration Of The Kyoto Protocol42

Recognizing the substantial delays that can occur between the adoption of a treaty and its entry into force, the INC FCCC decided to continue meeting prior to the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-1) in order to elaborate and implement the UNFCCC's reporting and review procedure, to address unresolved issues such as the relations between the COP and the financial mechanism, and to begin consideration of the next steps beyond the UNFCCC. This ''prompt start'' to the UNFCCC process helped speed the development of the climate change regime by allowing multilateral negotiations to continue during the interim period before the UNFCCC's entry into force.43 In addition, during this interim period, most industrialized country parties submitted national reports and the international review process began. As part of this process, the Secretariat compiled a synthesis report analyzing the overall progress by industrialized countries in implementing their commitments and...

INCIChantilly Virginia February 1991

The United States entered INC I after receiving further conflicting evidence about the seriousness of climate change. In January a scientific report revealed concrete evidence for global warming as well as significant costs to the United States if some of the dire effects of climate change came to pass, while another demonstrated further uncertainty.135 In this context of scientific uncertainty and in preparation for the actual negotiations, the United States unveiled America's Climate Change Strategy and Action Agenda, finally articulating what the United States was prepared to do to address climate change. The agenda focused on the no-regrets policy, and lacked emission reduction targets for carbon dioxide. The plan actually would allow U.S. carbon dioxide emissions to increase through the year 2000 eerily reminiscent of early EU ozone stances.136 The plan met with skepticism at home and abroad, given that many other Northern states had already committed to carbon dioxide emission...

Agriculture Organization And Climate Change

FAO plays a key role as a neutral mediator between the agricultural community and international agencies and institutions in the international negotiations process. Thereby, FAO contributes to the implementation of agreements that ensure the fair and balanced participation of all countries, particularly developing countries.

Commission on Sustainable Development CSD

It was clear to the government negotiators for both Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation that the CSD should continue to have a role in looking at both climate change and energy. Perhaps with energy it is understandable as there is no obvious other home for that discussion such as water. Recognizing this within the UN system, the secretary general set up the interagency coordination mechanisms to deal with how the UN should approach these subjects (e.g. UN Water and UN Energy). This stills leaves a massive gap in how and where governments should address energy.

Searching for flexibility creating a market

If you were sitting in Oslo, Norway, in 1991, as was Ted Hanisch, as the UN climate negotiations started, then two things would have been obvious to you. On the one hand, Norway has a strong tradition of environmental leadership. In the form of previous (and future) prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, it provided the chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development that popularised the term 'sustainable development'. The country also has considerable achievements in reductions in various pollutants and a positive reputation for stringent environmental regulation. On the other hand, Norway is an oil producer and exporter, already heavily dependent on oil exports for growth and export earnings, and poised for a significant expansion of its oil operations. Public pressure and diplomatic reputation required Norway to play a positive role in the response to climate change. But emissions were projected to grow significantly because of the role of oil in the economy. This idea...

Michele M Betsill and Harriet Bulkeley

The threat of global climate change is one of the most significant scientific and political challenges of our time. For more than a decade, members of the international community have debated the need for action to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, the relative responsibilities of different countries, and the means through which action could, or should, be taken. Given the global nature of the problem, these debates have largely taken place in the context of international treaty negotiations (the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol). However, as is becoming increasingly clear, climate change is also a profoundly local issue. Because greenhouse gas emissions originate from processes that are embedded in specific places, nation-states will be unable to meet their international commitments for addressing climate change without local action. Many local governments have considerable authority over land-use planning and waste management and can play an...

An American tradition

A sense of American 'exceptionalism' is one reason why the 1982 Convention has never been ratified by Congress, even though President Clinton signed it in 1994. Although it is increasingly supported in Washington, a powerful and vociferous alliance of politicians, academics and pressure groups have always opposed it on the grounds that it runs contrary to the American national interest. Its ratification, they argue, would curtail the freedom of the United States Navy, undermine America's maritime interests and pose a serious challenge to its national sovereignty. Of course this may be equally true of other countries but the United States is different, they claim, because it is the world's policeman and its policies and actions simply can't be compared with those of others. Some of the loudest and most determined of these unilateralists, who have blocked the Convention's path on Capitol Hill, have been leading figures, like the late Jesse Helms, the long-time chairman of the highly...

INC V Part 1New York February 1992

The monotonous story of the U.S. negotiating behavior and the climate change convention negotiations themselves finally took a different turn at the INC V sessions. Though the United States entered the negotiations with the exact same position advocating flexible mechanisms with no binding targets the United States did pledge 75 million in development assistance during the February INC V session.174 Though this gesture was not grand it signaled some flexibility in the U.S. positions, while it also leveraged the U.S. commitment to the GEF as the funding agency the funds were earmarked for the GEF. Some flexibility, however, should not be confused with major flexibility. As Daniel Lashof of the NRDC noted

The role of the United Nations Climate Convention and other bodies

The answer is clearly the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. Negotiations under the UNFCCC are at a critical stage. Diplomats are seeking to reach an agreement by December 2009 on a global framework to tackle climate change after 2012, which is the year when agreement on emissions limits for industrialized countries under the Kyoto Protocol expires. In December 2007, negotiators at the UN Climate Change Conference in Bali agreed to launch a comprehensive process to support sustainable implementation of the convention through long-term cooperative action. An agreement is to be reached by the 15th Conference of the Parties to the convention, which is taking place in Copenhagen in December 2009. The talks will seek to secure 'a long-term global goal for emissions reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of the convention' (UNFCCC, 2007). At this time, the UNFCCC negotiations are the obvious forum in which to secure such an agreement. Arguably, they are the only forum (Frankels, 2007)....

Conclusion The Implications Of The Fccc

Climate change had to be addressed through universal negotiations. This notion was universally accepted (by scientists, NGOs, industry, Northern states, Southern states, and IGOs) and it formed the boundaries for the climate change arena by constituting and defining appropriate levels of participation in this global environmental problem. No potential alternatives were even seriously considered. This chapter demonstrated that neither scientific information nor strategic behavior accounts for the acceptance and prevalence of universal participation. Instead, universal participation came to influence the climate change issue because it structured the political context in which climate change was addressed. Everyone knew what a global response to climate change should look like. Climate change had to be addressed through universal participation because the specific historical conditions, shaped by the ozone depletion negotiations, narrowed the possible definitions of the climate problem...

Secondary health benefits of mitigation policies

The ongoing negotiations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases present an important opportunity to improve population health. Many mitigation policies and technologies in Europe and beyond can have substantial near-term health benefits. Such win-win policies can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide other social or environmental benefits. For example, restricting the circulation of private motor vehicles in urban areas would decrease the burden of mortality and morbidity from road traffic accidents and reduce both local and global pollution. A significant shift in road transport towards more environmentally sound modes of transport, such as public transport, walking and cycling, would improve air quality and population health.

The Evolution of Universal Participation and the Governance of Climate Change

The FCCC was only the first step in governing climate change, and it was recognized by most as an inadequate first step. The governance of climate change would begin in earnest in the mid-1990s as the international community would grapple with more concrete and binding ways to address the problem. Rafe Pomerance (Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Environment and Development) observed that a s part of the 'bargain' struck in Rio between those who advocated more stringent commitments and those wary of moving too quickly, the parties agreed that the adequacy of commitments would be reviewed at the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties . . .1 The negotiations that followed the FCCC would prove to be more contentious than those that led to its creation. Agreeing to the rather vague goals of stabilizing the climate and voluntarily freezing emissions would prove a relatively easy task compared with agreeing to a set of binding regulations designed to make those goals a...

Conclusions and discussion

In the scientific assessment, the regional perspective was partly lost in the global-local dichotomy. However, in the overview document, the pan-Arctic region is given a much stronger emphasis and also given a symbolic role as the a canary in the mine warning system for what could be in store globally. As this framing is not as prominent in the scientific report, the immediate drivers appear to be the team that was responsible for the production of the overview and their wish to be policy relevant within the context of the global climate negotiations. A popular science genre, including attempts to draw general conclusions from an Arctic assessment, would also favor regional summaries over highlighting local complexity. An additional context that may have played a role for the regional framing is the building of a regional Arctic identity, in particular the voice of indigenous peoples in the Arctic Council and the role they have created for themselves as spokespeople for the Arctic...

The Problem Of Motivation

Moreover, rejecting the moral framing of the climate change problem and instead approaching it from the perspective of self-interest does not lead to solutions. Although I think we could get further on this ground than we have gotten thus far, ultimately acting on the basis of narrow self-interest locks us into collective action problems that lead to worse outcomes overall. This is borne out by the current state of climate change negotiations and also helps explain why we as individuals often feel so powerless in the face of this problem.72

Caps trades and profits

Faced with the prospect of long, drawn-out negotiations between countries to work out how to reduce their collective emissions, Grubb, like other commentators at the time who had started to think about future climate negotiations, foresaw many problems. As we now recognise well, climate change is not like many other environmental issues. At the time, ozone depletion provided the most obvious model given that the Montreal Protocol had just successfully agreed to 50 per cent cuts in chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), with more stringent cuts on the way. It also built on a general agreement (the Vienna Convention) rather like the Framework Convention that governments were trying to negotiate on climate change, so there were parallels. But unlike ozone depletion, climate change touches more or less every aspect of economic life, and goes to the literal engine of the industrial economy - energy use. Grubb looked at other negotiations on simpler issues and concluded that the solutions they...

Local global and regional preferences in the ACIA

The reasons varied among the actors, for instance the Nordic states and the indigenous peoples wanted the Arctic to serve as a bellwether for global climate change and possible leverage in the global negotiations. By contrast, it was clear that the US State Department did not want to give the Arctic this role and that it would, in fact, put a major effort into stopping any initiative towards making the Arctic Council a legitimate arena for climate politics. In this instance, the global preference is in direct contrast to a regional preference.

Introduction The importance of state and regional action

The 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia (COP 13), marked an important juncture in the international negotiations. Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) negotiated how to address climate change in the post-2012 period when the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period ends. Bali culminated in the adoption of the Bali Road Map and Action Plan, which laid the building blocks for future negotiations. Governments agreed to slow the growth of emissions and eventually cut them provide financial support for climate change mitigation cooperate on measures for adaptation and work on reducing deforestation and technology transfer. Negotiations in Bali, and more recent negotiations in Poznan, Poland, are all important steps toward the COP 15 conference in Copenhagen in 2009. This is the timeline that governments have set to come to a global agreement for the post-2012 period.

Setting the Negotiating Table The Race to Replace Kyoto by 2012

For the global response to climate change, 2007 was a landmark year. It began in January with President Bush's State of the Union address, in which he for the first time acknowledged the serious challenge of global climate change, and concluded in December with the Bali Roadmap which global negotiators will use to seek to finalize an agenda for a framework by 2009 in Copenhagen to replace the Kyoto accord, due to expire in 2012. Although this was the ambitious officially declared agenda, Yvo de Boer, the executive secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), revealingly stated in an October 2007 interview, I think the challenge in the next two years will be to design a climate policy that is good for the United Sates, good for China, and good for the EU.1

Boundary organizations as connecting point

Scientific assessments are processes in which the boundaries between science and policy are constantly negotiated in order to ensure that science and policy have authority in their respective arenas.11 Such negotiations are in fact central to science-policy relationship in general and a way to uphold the boundary between the two spheres and to make sure that the knowledge is generally accepted as valid and useful.12 This is aptly illustrated by the ACIA process in the increasing demarcation of the policy process from the scientific domain. However, the ACIA process also points to the importance of appropriate arenas for the boundary work, including the role of boundary organizations. Boundary organizations answer to both the science and the policy worlds and serve as ways to manage the science-policy hybrids.13

The Issue Of Noncompliance

The U.S. should not be a signatory to any protocol to, or other agreement regarding, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992, at negotiations in Kyoto in December 1997, or thereafter, which would - (A) mandate new commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the Annex I Parties, unless the protocol

Devising an Effective Incentive System

The obvious choice would be the WTO, but whether that organization can be credible in such a situation is questionable. An alternative would be to create a new international institution specifically to broker such negotiations. Finally, there is the possibility that the OECD countries could muster sufficient political will and commitment to provide the leadership for brokering such arrangements.

Lessons Learned Time Lost

Though rarely recalled today, the Montreal Protocol offers lessons for the climate negotiations of 2009. The U.S. government and chemical manufacturers strongly supported the phaseout of ozone-depleting gases. The agreement allowed developing countries a later timetable and established a global fund to funnel them needed financing from industrial countries. The fund to date has spent 2.3 billion. The agreement defined the dividing line between the two groups by per capita production and consumption. Although the climate problem is far larger and more complex than ozone depletion, each of the elements that help this treaty succeed could contribute to an effective climate agreement.13 By 1994, most of the world's nations, including the United States, had ratified and put into force the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, first agreed to at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. That treaty expressed two key principles that have guided...

Net and Longline Fishermen

The largest vessel of the artisanal fleet (approximately 30 gross registered metric tons) uses purse seine nets and is dedicated to the capture of anchovy, which is sold to the fishmeal plants. This group has a relative advantage during some ENSO events, as the anchovy move closer to shore in search of the nutrient-rich upwelled water, because the industrial fleet is not permitted to fish within 5 miles of the shore. This can lead to conflict and informal negotiations between the two sectors. With the total disappearance of anchovy during extreme ENSO events such as that of 19971998, some of these fishermen have modified their boats with permission and some minor subsidization from the government enabling them to trawl for langostinos, among other species that migrated down from Ecuador.

The View from Beijing

Finally, Beijing also focuses on efficiency, or energy intensity, the ratio of energy consumption to GDP, and consequently to emissions intensity, or the ratio of carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions to GDP. From 1980 to 2000, while the value of China's economy quadrupled, its energy consumption only doubled, so it improved its energy intensity dramatically.31 Collectively, these measures lead Beijing to the position, as expressed by the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu, that the key issue of the current international negotiations on climate change is that developed countries must continue to take the lead in cutting emission of greenhouse gases.32