Part 1: The Setting 11
Chapter 1: A Looming Resource War? 13
Chapter 2: The Arctic Thaw 25
Chapter 3: The Great Explorers 35
Part 2: The Issues 43
Chapter 4: Who Owns the Arctic? 45
Chapter 5: Black Gold 62
Chapter 6: The Arctic's Other Resources 82
Chapter 7: Sea Lanes and Strategy 103
Chapter 8: The Environmental Challenge 120
Part 3: The Contestants 139
Chapter 9: Russia and the Arctic 141
Chapter 10: America's Arctic Destiny? 164
Chapter 11: The Canadians Look North 182
Chapter 12: Some Other Arctic Claims 200
Conclusion: The Future of the Arctic 218
continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the continental margin
200 nautical mues continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the continental margin
Map 1: Coastal state jurisdiction. The Law of the Sea gives coastal states the right to establish clearly defined zones extending from the coast line (baseline) and along the seabed.
Map 2: Current boundaries of the 'Arctic Five'. Claims can be extended beyond the 200-nautical-mile limit if a country can prove that undersea ridges are part of its continental shelf. The Lomonosov Ridge is thought to be part of the continental shelf of Russia, Denmark and Canada.
Map 3: The Median Line principle. Every point of a median line is equidistant to the nearest point on the shoreline. The UN has given some indications that it is interested in adopting this principle, which favours Canada and Denmark.
Map 4: The Sector Method Principle. The Sector Method principle is based on straight longitude lines. Russia used this principle in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in 2001. This principle favours the United States and Norway.
Map 5: The Barents Sea disputes. The Loophole is triangular in shape, bounded on the east by the Russian economic zone, on the south-west by the Grey Zone claimed by both Russia and Norway, and on the north-west by the Svalbard fisheries protection zone.
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