Contents

Maps vii

Acknowledgements xii

Introduction 1

Part 1: The Setting 11

Chapter 1: A Looming Resource War? 13

Chapter 2: The Arctic Thaw 25

Chapter 3: The Great Explorers 35

Part 2: The Issues 43

Chapter 4: Who Owns the Arctic? 45

Chapter 5: Black Gold 62

Chapter 6: The Arctic's Other Resources 82

Chapter 7: Sea Lanes and Strategy 103

Chapter 8: The Environmental Challenge 120

Part 3: The Contestants 139

Chapter 9: Russia and the Arctic 141

Chapter 10: America's Arctic Destiny? 164

Chapter 11: The Canadians Look North 182

Chapter 12: Some Other Arctic Claims 200

Conclusion: The Future of the Arctic 218

Notes 227

Bibliography 248

Index 251

High Seas

CONTINENTAL SHELF

continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the continental margin

High Seas

Sea Surface

CONTINENTAL SHELF

200 nautical mues continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the continental margin

200 nautical mues a

Map 1: Coastal state jurisdiction. The Law of the Sea gives coastal states the right to establish clearly defined zones extending from the coast line (baseline) and along the seabed.

viii

Maps

Map 2: Current boundaries of the 'Arctic Five'. Claims can be extended beyond the 200-nautical-mile limit if a country can prove that undersea ridges are part of its continental shelf. The Lomonosov Ridge is thought to be part of the continental shelf of Russia, Denmark and Canada.

Map 3: The Median Line principle. Every point of a median line is equidistant to the nearest point on the shoreline. The UN has given some indications that it is interested in adopting this principle, which favours Canada and Denmark.

Map 4: The Sector Method Principle. The Sector Method principle is based on straight longitude lines. Russia used this principle in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in 2001. This principle favours the United States and Norway.

Map 5: The Barents Sea disputes. The Loophole is triangular in shape, bounded on the east by the Russian economic zone, on the south-west by the Grey Zone claimed by both Russia and Norway, and on the north-west by the Svalbard fisheries protection zone.

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