Notes

1 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1982), Article 56, (1), (a). 2 UNCLOS (1982), Article 76, (6). A coastal state does not have such unconditional rights over natural resources found in this extended economic zone (EEZ). See Conclusion pp. 222. 3 UNCLOS first came into effect on 16 November 1994, having first been signed on 10 December 1982. Switzerland signed the Convention on 1 May 2009, becoming the 158th state to do so. 4 By April 2009, 22 countries had applied to...

Piracy

From their bases along the coasts of Somalia, heavily armed and well-organized pirates have, in recent years, proved highly adept at seizing international freight as it moves through the Gulf of Aden and off the coasts of East Africa, and demanding high ransoms in exchange for both the crew and the cargo. In the course of 2008, a multinational task force that included warships from NATO members and from the United States Fifth Fleet had started to patrol the region, but met with only limited...

Implications for international shipping

Governments and businessmen have long been aware of just how much an Arctic Bridge might have to offer them. In 1957, they had watched with great interest as three icebreakers of the US coast guard became the first ships to cross the Northwest Passage, covering 4,500 miles of semi-charted water in 64 days. Twelve years later a number of Western oil companies sent a specially reinforced super tanker, the Manhattan, through the Passage to get a more accurate idea of whether it was a viable route...

Nationalism in Greenland

But while serious international disputes between Iceland, Denmark and Norway over the Arctic's natural resources are very unlikely, there are already serious disagreements closer to home. Not only is there a bitter controversy in Norway between environmentalists and the supporters of the oil lobby but, as an earlier chapter has noted, a growing political conflict over who has a right to rule Greenland.25 The disagreements between Greenlanders and the government of Denmark have hitherto been a...