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Total Money Magnetism

Total Money Magnetism is developed by Dr. Steve G. Jones who is a clinical Hypnotherapist and Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Master Practitioner since 1980s. He was a financially weak person struggling to pay his debts, somehow perceived an unusual guidance from a friend after which he became a self-made multi-millionaire, featured in Forbes magazine, People magazine and a lot of articles and radio interviews, and his clients include Hollywood celebrities, directors, CEOs, executives, and sports athletes. That guidance was 6 step secret method to develop a millionaire's brain which he explains in detail on this online interface. Actually, a poor person's brain is stuck in the same scratch while rich man's brain is well mapped and has the neural strength to always develop money making ideas. So Total Money Magnetism uses scientifically proven methods to effortlessly transform the programming of the brain to remove mental blocks, develop wealth pathways and build connections. This platform offers The Skill of Money Magnetism e-book, a valuable and inspirational audio track by Steve G. Jones himself, The Millionaire Mindset, which is an exclusive interview with many self-made millionaires, Mark Ling's 3 fastest ways to make millions online, and Platinum Millionaire Mind Makers, which are three proven and tested audio tracks to steadily and unconsciously reset your mind to become attractive to wealth. Read more...

Total Money Magnetism Summary


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Motivations Leading To Gas Hydrate Production

As previously discussed in this paper, significant if not insurmountable technical issues need to be resolved before gas hydrate can be counted as a viable option for future supplies of natural gas. In most cases, the viability of an energy resource is based almost solely on economics. It is important to note, however, that in some cases the viability of a particular hydrocarbon resource can be controlled by unique local economic and non-technical factors. For example, countries with little domestic energy production usually pay considerably more for their energy needs since they rely more on imported hydrocarbons, which often come with additional tariffs and transportation expenses. Energy security is often a concern to resource poor countries, which in comparison to energy rich countries will often invest more money in relatively expensive unconventional domestic energy resources. In some cases the uniqueness of a particular location, such as distance to a conventional energy...

Flash Floods in the Southern Alps and Algeria 2000 and 2001

These floods followed similar heavy rains and mudslides that devastated parts of southern Europe in October 2000. Northern Italy and Switzerland were among the worst hit, where water levels reached their highest in 30 years, killing about 50 people. In Switzerland the southern mountain village of Gondo was devastated when a 120-foot (37-m) wide mud-flow ripped through the town center, removing 10 homes (one-third of the village) and killing 13 people. Numerous roads, bridges, and railroads were washed away throughout the region, stretching from southern France, through Switzerland and Italy, to the Adriatic Sea. Crops were destroyed on a massive scale. Tens of thousands of people had to be evacuated from the region, and total damage estimates are in the range of many billions of dollars.

What can we learn from experiences of existing barriers

Table 9.1 lists comparative costs for two representative European barriers plus a hypothetical East River tidal gate designed for water pollution control. Given that water damage resulting from a major hurricane event colliding with New York City has been estimated in the many hundreds of billions of dollars, it is obvious from the table that barriers would be very cost effective, even for one major storm event alone.1

Beneficial Introductions and Specificity

Classical biological control efforts are seldom instituted until a pest outbreak occurs, and, even then, there can be a delay because of the time involved to search for, import, quarantine, mass-rear, and release new agents. Although not generally followed, another approach is preventative biocontrol, the introduction of promising exotic biocontrol agents prior to the appearance of a forecasted or expected target pest. Except for strict monophages, oligophagous agents may be introduced for establishment on alternate prey host species in association with the target agroeco-system (Stary et al., 1993). These then are present to attack the arriving pest, possibly before it is detected by humans. The approach provides a temporal advantage, and more or less limits population outbreak of the invading pest. Switching from a native host to a related introduced species can occur with striking results, and may include the indigenous beneficials (LaSalle, 1993). Understanding the host range of...

Water Pollution Prevention and Control

Once a groundwater or a surface water is contaminated, the cleanup cost is very high. In general, a contaminated groundwater or surface water must be decontaminated to meet the Federal and the State drinking water standards and the State Guidelines if the groundwater or surface water source is also a potable water supply source. Even if a receiving water (either a surface water or a groundwater) is not intended to be used as a water supply source, the cleanup cost and the loss of revenue can be as high as hundreds of millions of dollars. Pollution prevention before contamination occurs is always better and more economical than pollution control after contamination occurs.

Measures of Closeness

The million-dollar question is What method should be used to compare the model-simulated streamflow values and the observed streamflow data A visual comparison of the two time series plotted together on the same graph is intuitively appealing (Fig. 2) but is made difficult by the large number (say n) of time steps at which the simulated streamflow values must be compared to the observed data. If E, e, st ot, t 1, , represents the vector of differences between each simulated flow (sf) and its corresponding observed data value (o,), the method of visual comparison will involve adjusting the parameters to simultaneously make each one of the e, differences as small as possible. Because this approach is subjective, different hydrologists will tend to judge different model-simulated time series (and their associated parameter sets) as being better. Further, while it may be relatively simple to decide that a certain approximate region of the parameter space gives better simulations than some...

Global Scenarios and Impact on the Oil Business

Considering this path that refiners have followed, and previewing challenges for the future, energy conservation or energy efficiency activities will continue to be included with good management practices. Reasons First of all, (the old and good reason) money Energy saving is and will always be driven basically by return rate and cost reduction, either operational or investment. It will depend on energy prices, but remember that there should be extra gains Whenever you accomplish any energy efficiency action there is a good chance that you will also be reducing some other operational expense, like water for cooling and of course water treatment costs and emission reduction when you burn less fuel. And when you demand less water, fuel, steam, you can postpone the investment for new facilities, and that means more money in hand, less interest rates to pay and more to receive. And you might also be helping to cope with environmental regulation. So, energy efficiency has been and still...

Catastrophic Climate Change over the Next Hundred Years

Two years after Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans is still not a fully functioning city, despite the expenditure of billions of dollars and the attention of a nation. As of November 2007, population levels were only 70 percent of the pre-hurricane levels and nearly 47,000 families continued to live in FEMA trailers. Sixty-two percent of the schools and 38 percent of the day care facilities had reopened, and only 19 percent of public buses were running. Only 36 percent of the people who had applied for Road Home grants to help them rehabilitate their properties had received funding.1 With social, public, and criminal justice systems in disarray, long-standing criminal and corruption problems have exploded, making New Orleans the murder capital of America.2

Positive new directions to promote the transition

On the one hand, one might say not much. The 'pressure to lend' that has been in place since at least Robert McNamara's term as World Bank president has caused staff and board to measure job performance by the quantity of funding moved to the borrowers. This has meant that modest renewable energy and efficiency investments of appropriate scale are rarely viable in the race to place loans in amounts of hundreds of millions of dollars.27 In speeches, papers and personal communications, staff at all levels of the MDBs have long revealed a fixation with the need to lend money 'at the speed of business' and to become as efficient in making loans as the private sector in order to compete - to win a share of the loan business of developing countries. For example, new World Bank President Robert Zoellick's first public speech emphasized how the Bank 'would be simplifying the procedures and cutting interest rates We aim to be faster, better and cheaper.'28 But they have it exactly wrong....

Invasive Species Introduced Unintentionally

A worse risk may be the IAS that are introduced unintentionally, such as disease organisms that can devastate an entire tree species that is being used to restore a habitat. The Dutch Elm disease (Ophiostoma ulmi and O. nova-ulmi) and the American chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) in North America are notorious examples. Pests can have profound economic impact on native forests or plantations, such as gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) or long-horned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis). The economic impact of such pests amounts to several hundred million dollars per year.420 Much of this economic toll is felt in forested ecosystems, even within well-protected national parks.

Placement in the stratosphere

In the absence of at least detailed engineering design - preferably supplemented with at least sub-scale experimentation - all such mass estimates must be considered to be quite provisional similarly, cost estimates in the absence of detailed engineering and prototype evaluation must be deemed rather tentative. Nevertheless, it is not clear that either deployment or sustained operations of such systems would cost as much as billions of dollars per year, i.e. they might be several orders of magnitude less expensive than the authoritatively estimated costs of global carbon rationing a few decades hence (Stern 2006) and even of net negative direct cost when offsetting direct economic savings of avoided UV-B photodamage are considered.

Interaction with public policy

The corporate sector's history in public policy has not been good. The public image of a 'corporate lobbyist' is of someone working to protect a narrow vested interest, often against the interests of society as a whole. There are plenty of famous examples of companies, or groups of companies spending millions of dollars in opposition to progressive public policy, whether it is tobacco companies in the 1960s and 1970s questioning the link between

Wither United States Leadership

Over a decade passed before Congress updated the energy bill. However, the 2005 Energy Policy Act ''emphasized greater production and use of oil, natural gas and coal and strongly boosted federal support for nuclear power'' while critics ''especially faulted the act's billions of dollars of subsidies and tax breaks for the oil, gas, coal and nuclear industries'' (Kraft and Furlong 2007 353). In effect, the 2005 Act actually encouraged increased production of greenhouse gases. Two years later, while several legislative proposals were being prepared to address global warming, George W. Bush signed the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that the president argued would improve vehicle fuel economy and help reduce U.S. dependence on oil'' and could reduce projected CO2 emissions of billions of metric tons'' (The White House 2007). While the new Act was notable for its effort to improve fuel efficiency it also provided billions of dollars in subsidies to the fossil fuel and...

Slow Going For A Few Million Years

It is odd to think about highly intelligent human beings living such incredibly primitive lives. Their brains were capable of everything ours are now, but they lacked the base of common knowledge available today. If one of their babies were somehow brought into the modern era and raised in today's society, he or she would have just as good a chance as any of us to become an astrophysicist, a carpenter, or a billionaire manufacturer of malfunctioning computer software. This

Buying our way out of trouble

Other entrepreneurs embraced the idea of offsets as a win-win opportunity to promote conservation and make money at the same time. The climate dimension was secondary. Their natural allies were groups working on forestry issues, such as Global Canopy, that were seeking new revenue streams for their work on forest conservation. Individual entrepreneurs also saw an opening. Dorjee Sun, for example, founder and head of Carbon Conservation spent many years trailing around Indonesia trying to persuade governors to guarantee forest protection in exchange for investments from carbon buyers.4 Despite meeting scepticism from the likes of Starbucks and failed attempts to persuade E-bay to set up virtual trading places, he eventually succeeded in forming a carbon-credits-for-forests partnership with Merrill Lynch.5 The calculation was that credits bought now will be more valuable in the future, especially if UN negotiators could be persuaded to include Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and...

Reconstructing Historical Hurricanes

Corresponding sustained wind speed values are derived from Fujita's equations (1971), assuming a wind gust factor of 1.5 over land. bDescribed as well constructed or owned by a wealthy person (PR) also municipal buildings (PR). cConstructed with light wood frame and metal roof (PR). dF2 assigned if buildings described as rural or poor (PR). eAlso schools, sugar mills, commercial buildings, and military buildings (PR). fConstructed of palm leaves or similar materials (PR). Adapted from Boose et al. 2001, in press.

Examples of landslide disasters

Mass wasting is one of the most costly of natural hazards, with the slow downslope creep of material causing billions of dollars in damage to properties every year in the United States. Earth movements do not kill many people in most years, but occasionally massive landslides take thousands or even hundreds of thousands of lives. Mass wasting is becoming more of a hazard in the United States as people move in great numbers from the plains into mountainous areas as population increases. This trend is expected to continue in the future, and more mass-wasting events like those described in this chapter may be expected every year. Good engineering practices and understanding of the driving forces of mass wasting will hopefully prevent many mass-wasting events, but it will be virtually impossible to stop the costly gradual downslope creep of material, especially in areas with freeze thaw cycles.

The DHS Waste Reduction Program

With the passage of Assembly Bill 685 (AB 685, Farr), the Department was endowed with funding to provide grants to promote the research and commercial demonstration of technologies for reduction, recycling and treatment of hazardous wastes. Since its inception in 1985, the grants program has undertaken 68 research projects through three annual grant cycles. A fourth cycle is presently commencing, with requests for grant proposals currently being solicited. Initially provided with 1 million in annual funding, the budget for the grants program has been increased twice to the current level of 1.8 million dollars.

Networks For Climate Change

Specific campaigns have been directed in particular at the carbon offset markets, both in the CDM and in the voluntary carbon market. These markets have been widely regarded as a means by which rich consumers in the West merely displace their high-carbon consuming practices by buying offsets for their emissions cheaply in the South. This is referred to as 'carbon colonialism' a new way of acquiring land and resources in poor countries to sustain profligate consumption of the rich. To this criticism is added that of 'climate fraud' that many of the projects double-count emissions paid for by other clients or that the scale of the emissions reduction is exaggerated or non-existent.35 Groups have lodged complaints over the carbon-neutral claims of companies and wealthy individuals, challenging what they consider to be the 'scientifically dubious practice of planting trees to compensate for pollution'. Their arguments are informed These policies are opposed because they turn climate...

Mitigating The Dangers Of Future Impacts

Spaceguard is a term that refers to a number of different efforts to search for and monitor near-Earth objects. The United States Congress published a Spaceguard Survey Report, mandating that 90 percent of all large near-Earth objects be located by 2002, and some programs were funded at a level of several million dollars per year toward this goal. Present estimates are that the original goal will be met by the year 2020. One of these efforts is the Catalina Sky Survey, which discovered 310 near-Earth objects in 2005, 400 in 2006, and 450 in 2007. A loose organization of observers and astronomers in several countries meet to discuss strategies, progress, and ideas about asteroid detection through the International Astronomical Union. However, it is noteworthy that these efforts were not sufficient to detect two meteorite impacts with Earth an explosion over the Mediterranean in 2002 and the crash of a meteorite in the Bodaybo area of Siberia on September 25, 2002. The meteorites were...

US Response to Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol

The Bush administration has proposed a voluntary program of reducing GHG intensity by 18 in the next 10 years (U.S. Department of State, 2002). GHG intensity is defined as the ratio of GHG emissions to economic output. The administration proposes to lower the current GHG intensity of 183 metric tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE) per million dollars of GDP to 151 MTCE per million dollars by 2012 through voluntary and incentive-based measures. A key component of the administration's proposal is the creation of tax incentives for the development of renewable energy, hybrid and fuel cell-powered vehicles, co-generation and landfill gas, and other new technologies. In response to this proposal, some businesses have developed their own voluntary initiatives to reduce GHG emissions (White House, 2003).

Nationalism in Greenland

This is a scenario that could very easily become real, although any tension between Washington and Beijing would not, strictly speaking, reflect any rivalry over resources. Precious and plentiful as Greenland's mineral wealth promises to be, it is no more likely to be the cause of conflict than the resources found in any other part of the world, most notably Africa. Any rivalry between these, and other countries, would be much more likely to prompt them to spend more money and resources finding and exploiting new, untapped deposits than to risk provoking a clash of arms that would be extremely costly and which could easily escalate.

Hazards of Poisonous Gases

Steps have recently been taken to reduce the hazards of additional gas emissions from these lakes. in 2001 a team of scientists from Cameroon, France, and the united states installed the first of a series of degassing pipes into the depths of Lake Nyos, in an attempt to release the gases from depths of the lake gradually, before they erupt catastrophically. The first pipe extends to 672 feet (205 m) deep in the lake and causes a pillar of gas-rich water to squirt up the pipe and form a fountain on the surface, slowly releasing the gas from depth. The scientific team estimates that they need five additional pipes to keep the gas at a safe level, which will cost an additional 2 million dollars.

Groundwater Extraction

May be temporary, or recoverable, but generally once surface subsidence related to fluid extraction occurs, it is non-recoverable. When this process occurs on a regional scale, the effect can be subsidence of a relatively large area. Subsidence associated with underground fluid extraction is usually gradual but still costs millions of dollars in damage every year in the United States.

Examples of different types of floods

Floods are the most common natural hazard and have also proven to be the deadliest and costliest of all natural disasters in history. Individual floods have killed upwards of a million people in China on several occasions, and cause billions of dollars of damage annually in different parts of the world. The risk of flooding increases with time as many countries are allowing settlements on floodplains and even encouraging commercial and residential growth on floodplains known to experience floods at frequencies of every several to every couple of hundred years. As world population continues to grow and people move into harm's way on floodplains, this problem will only worsen. Further, as the climate changes, some areas will experience more rainfall while others experience drought, so areas that may be relatively safe on floodplains now may be frequently inundated with floodwaters in the near future. Development of floodplains should not proceed without proper scientific analysis of the...

Florida International university

As part of an effort to protect the millions of dollars invested in research programs at universities, the federal government set up the Disaster Resistant University (DRU) program. In 2007, FIU became the first public university in Florida to become DRU-certified. Under this program, the Federal Emergency Management Agency has responsibility for reviewing and approving the DRU certification. When a major storm requires the evacuation of people from locations vulnerable to wind damage, storm-surge, or flooding, the university is one of the designated hurricane shelters for residents of Miami-Dade County. Also, when a Category 3 or higher hurricane threatens the Florida Keys, FIU is the officially designated shelter for people seeking sanctuary from the approaching storm.

Government International National Local 8241 Technical

Governments at the local to national level are often managers of tourism-recreation lands and other resources (e.g., national parks, reservoirs) and as such, governments utilize many of the technical climate adaptation strategies already discussed in the tourism operators section. A recent example includes government response to changes in the phenology of cherry trees in Japan. Japan's cherry blossom is a national symbol and the basis of a multi-million dollar flower viewing tourism industry. The timing of the peak bloom varies with the seasonal weather and recent warm springs have caused the peak bloom to occur too early for local festival organizers. The local government in Hirosaki have commissioned scientists to 'programme' the cherry bloom at the 'appropriate time' by experimenting with sprays and plant hormone injections as well as piling snow on the base of trees to slow the onset of blossoms (Parry 2005).

Tourism Recreation Operators

The ski industry uses three major types of technological adaptations to improve snow reliability snowmaking systems, slope development and operational practices, and cloud seeding (Scott 2006b). Snowmaking is the most widespread climate adaptation used by the ski industry and has become an integral component of the ski industry in some regions (eastern North America, Australia, Japan). Over the last 30 years, hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in snowmaking systems in order to expand operating seasons and increase the range of climate variability that ski areas could cope with. Figure 8.3 illustrates the diffusion of snowmaking technology in the in the five ski regions of the US from 1974-1975 to 2001-2002. In the mid-1970s there was much greater use of this adaptation in the Northeast and Midwest ski regions than regions with higher elevations like the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific West. Since then that difference has been gradually diminishing. A similar east-west...

Incentives And Markets

William Nordhaus (2007 20) provides salutary advice ' I t is unrealistic to hope that major reductions in emissions can be achieved by hope, trust, responsible citizenship, environmental ethics, or guilt alone.' Climate change mitigation requires finance just reducing deforestation will cost billions of dollars every year for the foreseeable future. Who is going to put up this kind of money The solution that has most promise is to harness the market. Creating a demand for allowances to emit greenhouse gas reduction and allowing their trade is the approach adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in its Kyoto Protocol. Most rich countries have accepted emission allowances that are less than 1990 levels. To comply with their caps, countries are bound to adopt domestic policies that restrict greenhouse gas emissions. The cost of compliance is reduced by the ability of countries to trade emission allowances. If the price of allowances is above the cost of...

IS there a drought iN Las Vegas

Island Heightmap

In the past decade the water seems to be diminishing. Lake Powell in Arizona has shrunk to half its capacity, and the Colorado River flow shrunk to a quarter of its typical rates. The Colorado River is used to supply 30 million people with water and irrigates four million acres of fertile farmland, producing billions of dollars worth of crops. The massive waterworks systems across seven states in the southwest were all built using river flow data for the Colorado River based on 20th century flow records. Now, studies of the ancient climate history in the region going back thousands of years indicate that the 20th century may have been one of the wettest on record for the region. The Hoover Dam, the California aqueduct, and cities across the region were all built during this high flow stage of the Colorado River, and water budgets for the region were calculated assuming these flows would continue. Now, precipitation is decreasing, and the historical records show that the region...

Drying Of The American Southwest

In the past decade the water supply seems to be diminishing. Lake Powell in Arizona has shrunk to half its capacity, and the Colorado River flow shrunk to a quarter of its typical rates. The Colorado River typically supplies 30 million people with water and irrigates 4 million acres of fertile farmland, producing billions of dollars worth of crops. The massive water work systems across seven states in the Southwest were all built using river-flow data for the Colorado River based on 20th-century flow records. Now studies of the ancient climate history in the region going back thousands of years indicate that the 20th century may have been one of the wettest on record for the region. The Hoover Dam, the California aqueduct, and cities across the region were all built during this high-flow stage of the Colorado River, and water budgets for the region were calculated assuming these flows would continue. Now precipitation is decreasing, and the historical records show that the region...

Ecocide And Globalization

WWF, Rain Forests on Fire Conservation Consequences. NB The year 1997 saw some of the worst forest fires in human history. Indonesia lost 247,000 acres of virgin tropical rain forest, much of which had probably never burned before (80 per cent of these fires were caused by a neo-patrimonial oligarchy of billionaire palm-oil plantation owners and associated investors). Brazil's burning season swallowed 5 million acres of forest. Overall, more than 12 million acres of land went up in flames in an area roughly the size of Costa Rica. In 1998, again vast stretches of tropical forest were reduced to charcoal. Another 9.6 million acres were lost in Brazil. To the north, fires raged here and there through central America, and up into the highland cloud forests of southern Mexico, one of the last places in that country where it was still possible to find the quetzals, jaguars, and other species that have shaped thousands of years of indigenous culture. During the 1980s, the last time an...

Implications for international shipping

Altogether this means that a large container ship could slash its costs if it uses the Northwest Passage or Northern Sea Route, saving exporters billions of dollars a year. The savings would be even greater for the so-called 'megaships', the huge vessels that, since they were first built in the late 1990s, have been unable to fit through the Panama and Suez Canals and so currently sail around the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn.

Mobilising the power of investors

This process is known as the securitisation of insurance risks. Traditionally, insurers have insured themselves (a process known as reinsurance) against the sorts of risks that are low in frequency but high in costs when they do occur. Earthquakes, terrorism, flooding, hurricanes, are the sorts of events involved, many of which are weather- or climate-related. But with the rise in payouts for such events from around 1990 onwards, and increasingly confident claims that such a rise is connected to increases in extreme weather events (rather than, say, the simple fact that more rich people now live in risky places like Florida, which is certainly a factor), insurers started to worry that The outcome was a market in 'catastrophe bonds' and 'catastrophe futures' which by 2006 was worth 5 billion.2 The logic of these deals is this the insurer issues a bond which says that if there is no hurricane in a specified area over a certain time period, then the investor who buys the bond will return...

Agricultural Solutions To Climate Change

Researchers are also studying how to use other plant materials to produce fuel. Cellulosic ethanol is not yet a commercially-viable strategy, but many predict that it will be in the near future. Cellulose is the fibrous or woody part of many plants. For example, high concentrations of cellulose are found in the stock and leaves of corn. It would be beneficial to use this part of the corn for ethanol production because it is usually considered a waste product. Cellulosic ethanol would allow the corn kernel to be used for food rather than as a source material for ethanol. The challenge is that the sugars in the cellulose are tightly bound to starch molecules. Consequently a more expensive, enzyme-driven process must be used to convert the sugars into alcohol. Therefore, cellulosic ethanol is not commercially viable now, but many countries, including the United States, are spending hundreds of millions of dollars to discover how it could become a commercially viable fuel.

Government And Markets

Tools to shift assets to long-term value aligned with ecological health. But many, in Peter Senge's words, fail to summon the imagination and courage to face the fact that they are selling the wrong products . . . to the wrong customers (Senge, 2008, p. 310). Few will, without strong, imaginative, and farsighted government leadership of the kind we associate with the founding of the United States, Lincoln's response to the secession of the Southern states, and Franklin Roosevelt's leadership in the 1930s and during World War II. Corporations acting in disorganized or unregulated markets will not act consistently for the public good when it no longer serves their short-term shareholder interests. To do otherwise would be fatal to the management of underperforming companies. The cardinal rule of capitalism is to make money, and no amount of greenwashing can hide that fact.

Examples of Ecosystem Services Generation in Aquatic Ecosystems

Because of their recognized ecological importance and also their particular vulnerability to development pressures, more attempts at economic valuation of wetlands have been undertaken than at perhaps any other ecosystem. One study from the early 1970s estimated the value of tidal marshes at 2500- 4000 per acre per year (approximately 6200- 9900 per hectare per year), summing up all nonoverlapping services. In India, hurricane damages cost nearly five times as much to villages not protected by mangroves compared to a village in the wind shadow of a mangrove protected area. More recent estimates are lower, but still run high enough to place the value generation of the world's wetlands in the tens of billions of dollars per year. Lake productivity can provide recreational fishing opportunities in the billions of dollars. A recent study of sport fishing in New York State found that inland recreational fishing generated 1.2 billion annually in direct expenditures and an additional billion...

Conclusions From state security to human security

We are frustrated, and we are angry at the same time. We are victims of something we are not responsible for I think it's about time these industrialized countries realized that these countries in the Pacific are taking the toll. We are bearing the brunt of all the gas emissions. Millions and millions of dollars are spent on wars all over the world. Can they save people like us (Bernard Galie, resident of Piul, Carteret Islands, 2006)

Does a war comparison sound dramatic

As a precursor to enabling and building more sustainable systems for transport, energy, food and overhauling the nation's building stock, the governments need to brace themselves to tackle the big financial institutions. Currently they are giving us the worst of all worlds. We have woken to find the foundations of our economy made up of unstable, exotic financial instruments. At the same time, and perversely, as awareness of climate change goes up, ever more money pours through the City, London's financial district, into

The impact of tar sands

Containing around 175 billion barrels of oil, and not surprisingly their discovery has lured international energy companies such as Shell, which has already invested billions of dollars in extracting them.7 'The deposits are huge, potentially even greater than in Saudi Arabia (and) the time is right to exploit them', as Clive Mather, chief executive of Shell Canada, has said.8 Shell and its partners are already extracting about 150,000 barrels of oil a day and are aiming to expand this output fivefold, while some other companies, such as Suncor and Syncrude, have also entertained ambitions to drastically step up their own involvement in the project. These plans had been put on hold in the spring of 2009, when the profitability of the operations was slashed by the crash in the oil price, but are still likely to resume when economic conditions recover.

Russias energy challenge

But this will mean investing far more money into the wells than it is accustomed to because new fields, particularly those that lie offshore, require much more sophisticated technology and higher investment, which drives up production costs. This, in turn, means that profit margins fall, which is all the more painful if the price of crude oil crashes to the lows it achieved in 1986, 1998 and the early months of 2009.

United States as First Responder

More generally, it is possible that the United States will become reluctant to expend ever greater resources on overseas disaster relief, not to mention longer-term humanitarian and stabilization operations, as the impact of climate change at home becomes increasingly acute. Natural disasters already cost the United States billions of dollars annually, and the IPCC projects that climate change will create an extended period of high fire risk and large increases in area burned in North America and particularly in the western United States.98 In addition, the United States will have to meet rising health

Notforprofit agencies

The term NGO also implies independence from government, which often enables NGOs to promote, or expose activities and events in ways the government cannot. NGOs, then, need to be resourced effectively. For instance, the budget of the American Association of Retired persons (AARP) in 1999, was over 540 million, and, in 2003, Human Rights Watch spent and received 21.7 million. As such, many NGOs rely heavily on membership funds, donations, fundraising, grants, and sponsorships to resource their activities. To some NGOs, it is important to maintain financial independence from government at all times. Greenpeace does not accept donations from governments or corporations, but relies on contributions from individual supporters and foundation grants. Nonetheless, many NGOs depend in part on government funding. For example, the British Government and the European Union (EU) donated a quarter of Oxfam's budget ( 162 million) for famine relief in 1998. Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) operates...

Winners and losers of Arctic climate change

Government representatives watched proudly as 50 tonnes of tusks - with a street value of about 25,000 - went on sale. 'There are those who say that to sell the riches of the republic abroad is a bad thing', argued Tatiana Gladkova, a provincial minister for entrepren-eurship and tourism, 'but the problem is, if you don't gather the tusks and bones in time they start to decompose. So we've decided, better to make money than to let these riches go to waste'. Gladkova knew that for many nomadic tribesmen this booming market represented an opportunity to make money, and this was why, under a recent law, they had been allowed to collect what they found and then sell up to half a tonne to licensed traders. Most of the merchandise was sold to Japanese and Indian buyers, who are adept at using mammoth ivory as decorative jewellery. One particularly large tusk fetched 2,000.10

Geomagnetism geomagnetic reversal

Severity of such destructive natural events reduces their consequences significantly. Communities can use this information to plan evacuations, strengthen buildings, and make detailed plans of what needs to be done in natural disasters to such a degree that their costs have been greatly reduced. Increased government responsibility accompanies this greater understanding. Formerly society hardly looked to government for aid in natural disasters. For instance, nearly 10,000 people perished in a hurricane that hit Galveston, Texas, on September 8, 1900, yet since there were no warning systems in place, no one was at blame. In 2001 two feet (0.6 m) of rain with consequent severe flooding hit the same area, and nobody perished, but billions of dollars of insurance claims were filed. When Hurricane Ike hit Galveston in 2008, most people evacuated and the loss of life was minimal. Geologic hazards can be extremely costly in terms of price and human casualties. With growing population and...

Introduction 311 The Problem

It has been reported that in the UK the 'external costs' of agriculture in 1996 amounted to a staggering 89 of the average net farm income (Pretty et al. 2000), that annual damage by pesticides and fertilizers to water quality is suspected to range in the billions of dollars (Doran et al. 1996) and that annual off-site damages from soil erosion by water in the USA are over US 7 billion (Pimentel et al. 1993).

Spatial SciENcE METHoDS MoDels And Gis

Coastal and marine geographers study how temperature changes could increase sea levels, the intensity of hurricanes, and the extent of beachfront erosion. Many beach communities along the Atlantic Coast spend millions of dollars replenishing beaches that have been destroyed by severe wave action. If sea levels rise and storms become more intense, these communities will have to spend even more money maintaining their coastlines.

Global Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has issued several reports suggesting that even if greenhouse gas emissions were reduced to zero, there is enough system-wide momentum that climate change impacts will be felt for years into the future. The IPCC reports also predict increased droughts in middle latitudes, as well as stronger storm events in coastal regions. If humans continue with business as usual, mitigating the effects associated with global climate change is likely to cost billions of dollars.

Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided By Oyster Reefs

All of these sources as well as atmospheric deposition. Nitrogen loading at levels of 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1 within Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, resulted in the loss of 80 to 96 of the total extent of seagrass beds, and seagrass beds were completely absent in embayments with loading rates that doubled this amount (Hauxwell et al. 2003). They also found that nitrogen loading increased growth rates and standing stocks of phytoplank-ton, which likely caused severe light limitation to SAV by reducing light penetration through the water. Kahn and Kemp (1985) created a bioeco-nomic model to estimate damage functions for commercial and recreational fisheries associated with the loss of SAV in the Chesapeake Bay and determined that a 20 reduction in total SAV in the Bay results in a loss of 1-4 million dollars annually in fishery value. If improvements in water quality from oyster reef habitat increase the amount of SAV in the estuary, then the value of augmented fishery resources created by this...

Cross Sectional Analysis

One can even go a step further and use farmland values as the dependent variable to implicitly incorporate crop switching without limiting the analysis to certain crop types. Farmland values reflect the value of land if it is put to its most profitable use, whatever that may be. An example might illustrate this point. New York City's Mayflower Hotel On the Park was a medium sized hotel on Central Park West at 61st Street. In the early 2000s it sold for an astonishing 400 million dollars. Why would anybody pay 400 million dollars for a medium-sized hotel The first thing the new owner did was to knock down the old hotel and build a new luxury condominium (15 Central Park West) that reported apartment sales exceeding 1 billion dollars a

Penetration of Lake Vostok

Another concept is based on the possibilities of the penetration of Lake Vostok from another location, and not from Vostok Station. The resulting time involved in this proposal would lead to years of logistic preparations related to construction of a new manned station in Antarctica, and related deep drilling. This could lead to potential contamination of the lake by virtue of the introduction of hundreds of tons of equipment, fuel, drilling liquid, food, and a number of individuals that would occupy the site for many months, to say nothing of the millions of dollars spent to achieve goals that might result in the uncontrollable contamination of Lake Vostok water. Goals that are questionable could be solved by using the existing Vostok Station as a base for the final drilling of ice and exploration of the lake. In favor of the latter, a rule of science states that if it is possible to conduct an experiment (in a philosophical understanding of the word), it should be done as soon as...

Trends in Abrupt Impacts

FIGURE 5.2 Variability of total US farm output, 1929-2000. Variability is measured as the deviation of real farm output from its quadratic trend, where output is measured in billions of dollars in 1996 prices. These data include all farm output including cereals, fruits and vegetables, and livestock. (Data from Bureau of Economic Analysis.)

Executive summary

Over the past several decades, economic damage from severe weather has increased dramatically, due largely to increased value of the infrastructure at risk. Annual costs to North America have now reached tens of billions of dollars in damaged property and economic productivity, as well as lives disrupted and lost. 14.2.3, 14.2.6,14.2.7,14.2.8

Decline in Winter Sports

In fact, even famous ski resorts such as Aspen, Colorado, may be put out of business. By the middle of the century, according to some reports, springtime snowpack in the Rocky Mountains is expected to decrease by 37 percent and as much as 80 percent in the Southwest. And in New Hampshire, some experts predict that the number of ski days will be reduced by 10 to 20 percent. The global ski industry today is estimated at about 4 billion, so the economic losses from these changes could easily run into the hundreds of millions of dollars.

Contribution and Value of PGRFA

There is no doubt that plant genetic resources are very valuable. Estimates of the global value associated with the use of these resources vary from hundreds of millions to tens of billions of dollars per year. For example, the contribution of rice landraces from South Asia, assembled in the region's genebanks, is estimated to be about 150-200 million per year.9 Similarly, estimates for the core wheat collection, maintained at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in Mexico, to agriculture in the OECD countries range from 300 million to 11 billion per year.10 These ranges indicate the difficulty in assessing their value. Most estimates do not usually give the value of the genetic material per se, but rather aggregate value of both the genetic material and the work of plant breeders and other research inputs.

Public Policies to Support the Transition

Currently, governments spend billions of dollars each year on agricultural subsidy payments to farmers for production and inputs, primarily in the United States ( 13 billion in 2006, which was 16 percent of the value of agricultural production) and Europe ( 77 billion, or 40 percent of agricultural production value) but also in Japan, India, China, and elsewhere. Most of these payments exacerbate chemical use, the expansion of cropland to sensitive areas, and overexploitation of water and other resources while distorting trade and reinforcing unsustainable agricultural practices. Some countries are beginning to redirect subsidy payments to agri-environmental payments for all kinds of ecosystem services, and these can explicitly include carbon storage or emissions reduction.58

Introducing climate capitalism

How did we end up with this way of responding to climate change And are efforts to buy and sell units of carbon little more than a scam, where business people and financiers get to make money without delivering real cuts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions Or, do these new markets represent the start of the greening of the global economy, a serious attempt to mobilise those with power in the global economy to address perhaps the greatest challenge we have ever collectively faced More specifically, can they lead to the decarbonisation we need Many people have increasingly come to realise that climate change is the issue of the age. It impinges on every aspect of the things that keep us alive - food and energy - as well as the ways we make money, such as trade, industry and transport. Whereas once climate change was a quirky subject discussed in obscure scientific journals or amongst people who get excited about technology, it is now part of everyday discourse. As these connections are...

Regional Geography People Place And Region

Global warming will also have economic impacts that vary regionally. Panama is currently investing hundreds of millions of dollars expanding its famous canal. However, if the Northwest Passage does become commercially viable, this might undermine the ability of Panama to recoup its investments in an enlarged canal. Other cities that depend on oceanic trade, such as Singapore and Hong Kong, may suffer economically as trade is diverted away from Southeast Asia northward through the Arctic Ocean. An important aspect of understanding geographic variation is how seemingly meaningless regional differences can become a basis for deep social inequality. Hence, a geographic perspective can help to understand, and possibly remediate, the social and regional injustices that could occur from global climate change. Hurricane Katrina and the fate of the residents of New Orleans have already given us a foretaste of how regional differences get translated into social inequalities. In the case of New...

Multiple Approaches to Environmental Decisions

In the end, all policy costs are experienced by society's consumers and taxpayers. Individual firms, of course, can be punished with criminal sanctions or forced into bankruptcy over environmental breaches but as a rule governments and entire sectors of industry simply pass the costs along in the form of coerced tax hikes or industry-wide price hikes. Thus, neither government or industry (in a wide sense) pays for environmental protection except to the extent that when consumers or taxpayers find themselves with no more money to spend, the popular taste for government or the industrial product may evaporate. Table 4 shows a notional five-site universe given a budget of 100 money units (call them millions of dollars, if you will). It provides the agreed risk (in whatever units) posed by each site and the estimated cost to restore each. Additionally, the table shows the cost of doing nothing at each site these are the costs of the minimum essential security measures, studies,...


This chapter has shown that the tail-end of hurricanes and tropical storms affect Western Europe far more commonly than was previously known. Along with high winds, high precipitation events and flooding they can also cause significant numbers of fatalities and injuries and can cause extensive damage running to hundred of millions of dollars in the most extreme events, similar to the biggest and severest of the mid-latitude storms. In the context of global warming and in particular the rise in sea surface temperatures in the tropics the likelihood of more of these events arriving in Western Europe and being more tropical when they arrive will increase as the century progresses (El Ni o not withstanding). As a result more attention needs to be paid to these events and the frequency with which they affect Western Europe.

Earthquake Hazards

Earthquakes are associated with a wide variety of specific hazards, including primary effects such as ground motion, ground breaks (or faulting), mass wasting, and liquefaction. secondary and tertiary hazards are indirect effects, caused by events initiated by the earthquake. These may include tsunami in open ocean and bay waters waves that rock back and forth in enclosed basins, called seiche waves fires and explosions caused by disruption of utilities and pipelines and changes in ground level that may disrupt habitats, change groundwater level, displace coastlines, cause loss of jobs, and displace populations. Financial losses to individuals, insurance companies, and businesses can easily soar into the tens of billions of dollars for even moderate-sized earthquakes.

Effects Of Coal

While coal provides an affordable and easily accessible form of fuel for electricity generation, there are severe environmental, human health and economic effects of coal. The combustion of coal contributes more pollution than any other type of fossil fuel. Fifty percent of all U.S. electricity comes from coal combustion. Just one 500-megawatt coal-fired power plant produces about 3 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. Using this much coal for electricity generation causes environmental problems such as acid rain, land pollution, and global climate change. Coal has also been linked to increased incidence of respiratory ailments such as asthma, shortness of breath, and chest pains. Finally, remediating the damage done by coal combustion can cost thousands to millions of dollars.

Wildfires of borneo

The smoke billowed through Palangkaraya. One of the largest towns in Borneo was engulfed in acrid smog denser even than one of London's old pea-soupers. It blotted out so much sun that there was a chill in the air of a town more used to the dense, humid heat of the rainforest that encircled it. This was late 1997, and the rainforest was burning. The most intense El Nino event on record in the Pacific Ocean had stifled the storm clouds that normally bring rain to Borneo and the other islands of Indonesia. Landowners took advantage of the dry weather to burn the forest and carve out new plantations for palm oil and other profitable crops. The fires got out of control, and the result was one of the greatest forest fires in human history. The smoke spread for thousands of miles. Unsighted planes crashed from the skies, and ships collided at sea in neighboring Malaysia and distant Thailand, hospitals filled with victims of lung diseases, and schools were closed. The fires became a global...


A FLOOD IS the intrusion of water into normally dry land. While floods are a natural part of the ecological cycle and have some benefits for the health of the biosphere as a whole, flooding has always been one of the most devastating types of natural disasters for humans, responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage each year. Climate change is expected to increase the risk of flooding for people around the world, both by raising global sea levels and increasing severe inland flooding events.

Flash Flooding

Globally, flash floods are responsible for an average of 5,000 deaths and millions of dollars of property damage each year. Many regions do not have the forecasting or notification technology to alert vulnerable populations to oncoming flood events. Since 2006, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has been working to implement a system known as the Flash Flood Guidance Center with Global Coverage, which would give developing countries greater ability to mitigate loss of life in flash-flooding events.

Market Issues Restructured energy markets As the energy sector is increasingly privatized around the world, more and more decisions are being made almost exclusively on the basis of profit potential, as opposed to ensuring universal service in a sustainable manner. The implications for renewables are several-fold. First, the cost of capital in these markets is increasing to reflect corporations' hurdle rates for new projects and greater risks in privatized markets that do not have guaranteed returns. These higher money costs are especially detrimental to renewables, which are capital intensive, but have low operating costs. Secondly, developers can usually earn more money through larger projects. Limited resources at any one site frequently prevent renewable energy projects from being developed at the


A study of the economic potential of soybean showed that the crop was most profitable for the poorest farmers as it had lower input costs but gave the highest return on investment (Rusike et al. 2000). Poor farmers who adopted soybean for the first time between 1997 and 2001 have testified that they earned more money from soybean sales than from any other crop that they have ever grown (Table 2). The significant boost in family dietary protein availability (Table 2) is a critical element of household food security, a key benefit of BNF among poor rural communities.

Spatial Solutions

Gasoline prices in the EU are higher than in the USA, which deprives the European spatial planning advantages. In contrast to the USA, in the EU housing estates are closer to big cities but people have to pay more money for a gasoline. The data of June 2008 show, that one litre of gasoline on average costs C 1.40. Finland has the honour to bid the highest price (C 1.53), whereas Romania demands the lowest (C 1.10, still more than in the USA) (European Commission, Directorate-General


Meanwhile, other scientists are researching ways to prevent tornadoes from forming to begin with. A project has been developed where using a burst of microwave energy specifically beamed down from a carefully calculated direction from a space satellite could be used to destroy the destructive power of a tornado cell in a thunderstorm. According to the American Meteorological Society, roughly 1,200 tornadoes on average are reported each year in the United States. These destructive storms average 55 fatalities annually and cause billions of dollars worth of property damage. Because climatologists have begun to warn that an increase in global warming may cause an increase in tornadoes in the future, scientists have been experimenting in the development of a device to negate their formation and destructive effects. A revolutionary new concept was presented at the American Society of Civil Engineers' Space 2000 Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, Operations and Business...

Poverty And Ecocide

Hence, since the 1980s, Indonesian forests have been subjected to the largest artificial forest fires in human history, irreparably destroying much of the evolutionary vestiges of the most biologically diverse patchworks of ecosystems and habitats of the planet. These apocalyptic fires exposed some 100 million people to a thick smoky haze (which could be viewed through satellite photographic transmission on the Internet). The poor visibility due to smoke caused fatal airplane crashes and ship collisions in a region ranging from Borneo to Singapore. The air quality became so poor that the governments in the region were forced to declare a temporary state of emergency. At one point, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad even wore a surgical mask in public - and urged his compatriots to do the same.27 Mike Davis offered an insightful comment Billionaire arsonists set almost the entirety of the Malay Archipelago ablaze with their greed. 28

Malini Mehra

This is a moment of decision for India. How can a country with one sixth of the global population, and more billionaires than Japan, not play a leadership role on the climate agenda As the world's third largest economy (in purchasing power parity terms), and the fourth largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs), India's positive engagement will be crucial to constructing a global deal on climate at Copenhagen, the next pivotal meeting of governments that are party to the Framework Convention on Climate Change.1

Hazards to Humans

Accounts for the greatest cumulative amount of material moved through mass-wasting events. These slow flows do not usually hurt people but they do cause billions of dollars in damages every year. Occasionally slow flows will accelerate into fast-moving debris flows, so it is important to monitor areas that may experience accelerated creep. Human-built structures are not designed to move downhill or to be covered in debris, so mass wasting needs to be appreciated and accounted for when designing communities, homes, roads, pipelines, and other cultural features. The best planning involves not building in areas that pose a significant hazard, but if building is done, the hazards should be minimized through slope engineering, as described below.

Flash Floods

The national record for the highest, single-day rainfall is held by the south Texas region, when Hurricane Claudette dumped 43 inches (1.1 m) of rain on the Houston area in 1979. The region was hit again by devastating floods during June 8-10, 2001, when an early-season tropical storm suddenly grew off the coast of Galveston, dumping 28-35 inches (0.7-0.9 m) of rain on Houston and surrounding regions. The floods were among the worst in Houston's history, leaving 17,000 homeless and 22 dead. More than 30,000 laboratory animals died in local hospital and research labs, and the many university and hospital research labs experienced hundreds of millions of dollars in damage. Fifty million dollars were set aside to buy out the properties of homeowners who had built on particularly hazardous floodplains. Total

Sea Level Rise

Greenhouse Gases And Sea Level Rise

Global warming causes the oceans to warm and expand, causing sea levels to rise. If ocean levels rise high enough, shoreline areas will be inundated and lost, forcing the populations that inhabit these areas to relocate and causing billions of dollars of economic losses in property damage.


Will typically try to change public perceptions of what they do before they change what they do. It's cheaper. Thus rising public alarm about global warming has seen firms respond with a rich variety of dissimulation, of which greenwash has become the highest form. Greenwash has been defined as a strategy in which corporations 'put more money, time and energy into slick PR campaigns aimed at promoting their eco-friendly images, than they do to actually protecting the environment'.32 In responding to concern over their role in global warming, energy companies have been especially creative. Shell decided to describe its Canadian tar sands operations in greenhouse terms by far the worst way to produce energy as 'sustainable'. When challenged, the company displayed astonishing brio in defending its use of the word by invoking the authority of the Brundtland Report. Shell interpreted Brundtland's celebrated definition of sustainable development 'development which meets the needs of the...

Tsunami nightmare

The magnitude 9.0 Sumatra earthquake that caused the Indian Ocean tsunami was detected by American scientists who tried to warn countries in soon-to-be-affected regions that a tsunami might be approaching. However, despite efforts by some scientists over the past few years, no systematic warning system was in place in the Indian Ocean. Initial cost estimates for a crude system were about 20 million dollars, deemed too expensive by poor nations who needed the funds for more obviously pressing humanitarian causes. When the earthquake struck on a Sunday, scientists who tried calling and e-mailing countries and communities surrounding the Indian Ocean to warn them of the impending disaster typically found no one in the office and no systematic list of phone numbers of emergency response personnel. Having a simple phone-pyramid list could have potentially saved tens


It is easy to see, then, why the prospect of trans-Arctic trade is stirring so much interest in the world of commerce and why over the past few years shipbuilders have started to show much more commitment than ever in building ice-capable ships.15 The private sector is already investing billions of dollars in a fleet of Arctic tankers. In 2007 there were 262 ice-class ships in service worldwide and another 234 on order, all using cutting-edge technology that can allow ships to sail through some frozen waters without any icebreakers at their side. One such innovation, is a 'double-acting tanker' that steams through open water bow first, but can turn right round when it moves into frozen seas and then use a specially reinforced stern to smash through the ice. Such breakthroughs are making Arctic shipping more cost effective and turning what were once commercially unviable projects into booming business.

Criticisms Of Ngos

The NGO movement, however, is not without its critics. Many question the accountability of NGOs. For example, the work undertaken by World Vision, in coordinating the relief effort resulting from the Tsunami in South East Asia in 2005, has sustained attacks that the donated monies, millions of dollars in this case, were not reaching the intended victims. Many NGOs working in developing countries are partly funded by their own governments, and have been criticized as being a front for foreign government policy. Critics argue that this makes NGOs accountable to their funders, not the people they work with. This division has often been characterized within a debate about northern (Western) vs. southern (developing world) NGOs.

Selecting a Team

Quality circles have been instituted by many companies, particularly in manufacturing industries, to improve product quality and production efficiency. These quality circles (sometimes referred to as TQM, total quality management) consist of workers and supervisors sharing ideas on proposed improvements. Quality circles are often successful because they involve production people who are closely associated with the operations and truly appreciate being part of the decision-making process. Several companies with quality circles have used them effectively to solicit suggestions for waste reduction that have saved millions of dollars.

Oil and governments

Movement of goods as they leave the country of origin and head for their destination markets. How much a government takes can vary enormously in recent years, Saudi Aramco has paid around 93 per cent of its profits in royalties and dividends to the state, keeping the rest for itself so that, in the words of one Aramco official, 'it does not have to ask permission from the government to get the money back'.12 The Russian government also takes a very high percentage, and in 2004 introduced a punitive tax that allowed it to appropriate around 80 per cent of oil revenues. Western governments, by contrast, are unlikely to take as much from the privatized energy companies, such as BP, Royal Dutch Shell and Total. It was precisely for this reason that in the summer of 2008 the British government argued in favour of a windfall tax that would take much more money from UK-registered oil majors at a time when their profits were being hugely inflated by the soaring price of crude.

The real danger

By the summer of 2008, some American military chiefs had certainly started to become seriously concerned by the climatic changes in the Arctic, recognizing the strategic challenges it might pose. In April, the leaders of the Pentagon's Pacific Command, Northern Command and Transportation Command wrote directly to the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington and urged them to spend more money and concentrate more attention on the Arctic region. At the same time Admiral Thad W. Allen, the head of the coast guard, also advised a House of Representatives committee that the United States Navy needs more icebreakers to match the Russian capability in the region 'I am concerned we are watching our nation's ice-breaking capabilities decline', as he told the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee.36 Not only is Russia's fleet bigger, he pointed out, but it is also nuclear-powered and better equipped. In particular, the newly commissioned Russian vessel, 50 Let Pobedy ('50 Years of...

North America

Over the past several decades, economic damage from hurricanes in North America has increased over fourfold (Figure TS.15), due largely to an increase in the value of infrastructure at risk 14.2.6 . Costs to North America include billions of dollars in damaged property and diminished economic productivity, as well as lives disrupted and lost 14.2.6, 14.2.7, 14.2.8 . Hardships from extreme events disproportionately affect those who are socially and economically disadvantaged, especially the poor and indigenous peoples of North America 14.2.6 .

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