Contents

Foreword to the First Edition xi

Foreword to the Second Edition xv

Part I: Background Information 1

1. Introduction 3

Olive and Oil Production Statistics 3

Olive Growing and Environmental Effects 8

The Problem of Olive Processing Wastes 9

Current Practices for Olive Processing Waste Management 14

Spain 14

Italy 15

Greece 15

Turkey 16

Tunisia 17

Portugal 17

France 17

Cyprus 18

Croatia 18

Malta 18

Terminology 19

Reviews in the Prior Art 19

2. Characterization of Olive Processing Waste 23

The Olive Fruit 23

Olive By-Products 24

Pruning and Harvest Residues 24

Types of Olive-Mill Extraction By-Products 28

Experimental Techniques 51

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 53

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) 53

Total Organic Nitrogen 53

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 53

Lipid Characterization 53

Total Carbohydrate Characterization 53

Phenol Characterization 54

Determination of Partition Coefficient (Kp) 60

Analysis of Metal Cations and Inorganic Anions 60

Antioxidant Activity 61

Identification of Bacteria 63

Animal Feed Analysis 63

3. Environmental Effects 65

Effects on Soil 65

Effects on Soil Physical Properties 66

Effects on Soil Chemical Properties 68

Effects on Soil Biological Properties 73

Effects on Water 77

Effects on Atmosphere 80

4. The Effect of Olive-Mill Technology 83

Evolution of Production Methods 83

Crushing 84

Pressing 87

Oil Separation 91

Olive Oil Production Systems 92

Pressing Process (Traditional or Classical System) 95

Centrifugation 96

Stone-Removing Process 101

Percolation (Selective Filtering) 102

Electrophoresis 103

Chemical Separation 104

Part II: Treatment Processes 105

5. Physical Processes 107

Dilution 107

Sedimentation/Settling 108

Flotation 109

Centrifugation 110

Filtration 112 Membrane Technology (Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration,

Nanofiltration, and Reverse Osmosis) 113

6. Thermal Processes 123

Physico-Thermal Processes 123

Evaporation/Distillation 123

Drying 129

Irreversible Thermo-Chemical Processes 131

Combustion 131

Pyrolysis 133

Lagooning 135

7. Physico-Chemical Processes 139

Neutralization 139

Precipitation/Flocculation 140

Inorganic Flocculants 142

Organic Flocculants 147

Adsorption 151

Chemical Oxidation Processes 154

Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) 156

Wet Oxidation 163

Electro-Chemical Oxidation 164

Ion Exchange 168

8. Biological Processes 171

Anaerobic Processes 171

Up-Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor 174

Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) 175

Combinations and Comparisons Among Various Reactors 176

Co-Digestion 180

Conclusions Regarding Anaerobic Bioreactors 182

Landfills 184

Aerobic Processes 185

Attached-Growth (Biofilm, Fixed-Film) 185

Suspended-Growth 188

Conclusions Regarding Aerobic Bioreactors 192

Use of Specific Aerobic Microorganisms 192

Aerobic-Anaerobic Processes 203

Composting 204

Phytoremediation (Wetlands) 210

Irrigation of Agricultural Land/Land Spreading 214

9. Combined and Miscellaneous Processes 219 Part III: Utilization 233

10. Uses 235

Use as Fertilizer/Soil Conditioner 238

Use as Herbicide/Pesticide 245

Use in Animal Feeding and Human Consumption 250

Recovery of Residual Oil 255

Recovery of Organic Compounds 258

Pectins 258

Antioxidants 259

Enzymes 271

Production of Various Products 272

Alcohols 272

Biosurfactants 274

Biopolymers 276

Activated Carbons 277

Generation of Energy 278

Miscellaneous 289

Part IV: Table Olives 293

11. Table Olives 295

Introduction 295

Characterization of Table Olive Processing Waste 298

Effect of Table Olive Processing 302

Environmental Effects 304

Physical Processes 305

Thermal Processes 307

Physico-Chemical Processes 309

Flocculation/Adsorption 309

Chemical Oxidation Processes 310

Biological Processes 312

Combined and Miscellaneous Processes 314

Uses 318

Part V: Economic and Legislative Overview 321

12. Economic Evaluation 323

13. Legislative Aspects and Environmental Policies 329

EU Policies 329

The Case of Italy 330

Proposals 332

Supplement 333

Appendix 1: Major EU Research Projects 335

Appendix 2: Databases 337

Appendix 3: International Organizations 339 Appendix 4: National Associations/Institutions/Research Laboratories 341

Bibliography 343

Literature 343

Patents 409

Glossary 441

Index 459

List of Authors 475

List of Patents 495

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