Uses

Olive fruit processing produces large amounts of by-products, including liquid and solid wastes arising from olive oil extraction and the production of table olives. The disposal without any treatment of the wastewaters, arising mainly from the olive-mill (OMWW) and to a lesser degree from the table olive industries, is known to cause serious environmental problems. A wide range of technological processes are available nowadays for reducing the pollutant effects of OMWW and for its...

Use as Herbicide Pesticide

Since antiquity, the olive-mill liquid wastes were known to have herbicide and pesticide properties and amurca is considered a precursor to modern pesticides in the classical period (Smith A.E. and Secox D.M., 1975 Levinson H. and Levinson A., 1998). Both Cato (XCI) and Varro (I, 51) recommended that threshing floors be made from a mixture of soil and amurca so that weeds would not grow. Columella, Palladius30, and the Geoponika31 also made mention of this practice. In this instance, the amurca...

Lagooning

With the use of large lagoons (artificial evaporation ponds or storage lakes), the sun's energy is used to speed-up the process of evaporation and drying of OMWW. Moreover, OMWW is partially degraded by a natural biological route, over very long time periods. This technique for OMWW disposal imposes treatment times of the order 7-8 months, in practice, from one milling season to the subsequent season, depending on the climatic conditions of the area. It has been estimated that for every 2 tons...

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Water (57.47 ) Olive oil (4.03 ) Dry-extract (38.51 ) Water (57.47 ) Olive oil (4.03 ) Dry-extract (38.51 ) Water (94 ) Olive oil (0.57 ) Dry-extract (5.43 ) Water (52.11 ) Olive oil (1.5 ) Dry-extract (46.39 ) Fig. 9.2. Purification of 2POMW by enzymatic treatment, filtration, and evaporation (ES2110912, 1998). *The obtained concentrate is composed of 24.0 humic extract 2.7 total N 6.7 K2O 1.6 P2O5. Elements Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn. Fig. 9.2. Purification of 2POMW by enzymatic treatment,...

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Population of the nitrate bacteria after 100 days was larger than that of the untreated soil. The increased amount of bacterial biomass may be attributed to the fermentation of the dispersed organic substances and the improved aeration of the soil. A greater development of free-living N-fixers in soils treated with raw OMWW has been often recorded (Paredes M.J. et al., 1987 Flouri F. et al., 1990 Balis C., 1994). An increase of nitrogen fixation in soils treated with bioremediated in liquid...

Evolution of Production Methods

According to Pliny the Elder12 (see Fig. 4.1) the extraction of oil from the olive fruit was introduced by Aristaios, son of Apollo and the nymph Kyrene. Aristaios was considered also as the inventor of olive press (Pliny the Elder VII, 199). For this reason he was particularly honored in Sicily by the olive producers (Diodorus13, IV, 82). Olive oil production and trade spanned the centuries since the beginning of the Mediterranean civilizations. In Palestine, olive oil was extracted as early...

Analysis of Metal Cations and Inorganic Anions

The cations are quantitatively determined by atomic-absorption spectroscopy (AAS), whereas the anions are detected by ion chromatography (Arienzo M. and Capasso R., 2000). 9Archer M. H., Dillon V. M., Cambell-Platt G., and Owens J. D. (1994) The partitioning of diacetyl between food oils and water. Food Chem, 50, 407-409. Attempts to separate soluble anions from OMWW by ion-exchange or to remove the oil fraction by solid-phase or solvent extractions were not completely satisfactory and erratic...

Production of Various Products

OMWW has a sugar content of about 1.6-5 (w v) that can serve as a source for alcohol production (Fiestas Ros de Ursinos J.A., 1961a,b, 1967 Fernandez-Bolanos J. et al., 1983). A possibility for the utilization of sugars is their transformation to ethanol and recovery of the alcohol by distillation (Martinengri G.B., 1963 Oliveira de J.S., 1974). Oliveira de (1974) studied the effect of the yeasts Saccharomyces wine 31 B2, S. mollasses, bread yeast, Candida utilis and the natural fauna on...

Use as Fertilizer Soil Conditioner

OMWW contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients (3.5-11 g l of K2O, 0.06-2 g l of P2O5, and 0.15-0.5 g l of MgO) and is a low cost source of water, all of which favor its use as a soil fertilizer or organic amendment to the poor soils that abound so much in the countries where it originates (Cegarra J. et al., 1966a,b Catalano L. and Felice M. de, 1989 Nunes J.M. et al., 2001). Direct application of OMWW to soil has been considered as an inexpensive method of disposal...