Mill Wastewater

Evolution of Production Methods

Gaius Plinius Secundus Natural History

According to Pliny the Elder12 (see Fig. 4.1) the extraction of oil from the olive fruit was introduced by Aristaios, son of Apollo and the nymph Kyrene. Aristaios was considered also as the inventor of olive press (Pliny the Elder VII, 199). For this reason he was particularly honored in Sicily by the olive producers (Diodorus13, IV, 82). Olive oil production and trade spanned the centuries since the beginning of the Mediterranean civilizations. In Palestine, olive oil was extracted as early...

The Problem of Olive Processing Wastes

Both, olive tree culture and olive processing industry produce large amounts of byproducts. It has been estimated that pruning alone produces 25 kg of by-products (twigs and leaves) per tree annually. It must also be considered that leaves represent 5 of the weight of olives in oil extraction. The manufacturing process of the olive oil usually yields next to olive oil (20 ), a semi-solid waste (30 ), and aqueous liquor (50 ). The crude olive cake is composed of a mixture of olive pulp and olive...

Bibliography

Fluidized bed combustion for energy production from olive cake. Energy, 21 (3), 173-178. Abu-Qudais, M., & Okasha, G. (1996). Diesel fuel and olive-cake slurry atomization and combustion performance. Appl. Energy, 54 (4), 315-326. Abu-Zreig, M., & Al-Widyan, M. (2002). Influence of olive mills solid waste on soil hydraulic properties. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 33 (3-4), 505-517. Aggelis, G., Gavala, H.N., & Lyberatos, G. (2001). Combined and separate aerobic and...

Use as Fertilizer Soil Conditioner

OMWW contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients (3.5-11 g l of K2O, 0.06-2 g l of P2O5, and 0.15-0.5 g l of MgO) and is a low cost source of water, all of which favor its use as a soil fertilizer or organic amendment to the poor soils that abound so much in the countries where it originates (Cegarra J. et al., 1966a,b Catalano L. and Felice M. de, 1989 Nunes J.M. et al., 2001). Direct application of OMWW to soil has been considered as an inexpensive method of disposal...

Effects on Water

Formerly, OMWW was usually discharged into nearby rivers and streams with a considerable impact on the receiving waters. As a result many rivers in Spain (Guadalquivir river), Italy (Vomano, Saline, and Foro rivers in Abruzzo), and Morocco (Sebu and Fez rivers) have become anoxic (Di Giovacchino L. et al., 1976 Cabrera F. et al., 1984 Zenjari B. and Nejmeddine A., 2001). As early as 1982, in Spain a law forbade river disposal of OMWW. Later, other Mediterranean countries adopted similar...

TOC 2545 gl

toxic compounds are phenols, tannins, and dyes phenolic compounds are present in OMWW at concentrations in the range from 0.5 to 24 g l the phenols comprise at least 30 compounds the sugars constitute up to 60 of the dry substance and comprise, in decreasing amount, fructose, mannose, glucose, and saccharose potassium is the predominant inorganic material 4 g l) and is a very important nutritional compound one ton of processed olives produced a polluting load equivalent to that of 50-100...

Use as Herbicide Pesticide

Since antiquity, the olive-mill liquid wastes were known to have herbicide and pesticide properties and amurca is considered a precursor to modern pesticides in the classical period (Smith A.E. and Secox D.M., 1975 Levinson H. and Levinson A., 1998). Both Cato (XCI) and Varro (I, 51) recommended that threshing floors be made from a mixture of soil and amurca so that weeds would not grow. Columella, Palladius30, and the Geoponika31 also made mention of this practice. In this instance, the amurca...

Use in Animal Feeding and Human Consumption

Many authors have described the use of olive cake in animal feeding as air-dried (Zumbo A. et al., 2001), ensiled (Nefzaoui A., 1991 Hadjipanayiotou M. and Koumas A., 1996) and soda- or ammonia-treated feedstuff (Aguilera J.F. and Molina Alcaide E., 1986 Molina Alcaide E. and Anguilera J.F., 1991). Olive cake is not attractive as an animal feed, in that it contains, on a dry matter basis, fiber (58 ), crude protein (5.5 ), lipids (3.5 ), soluble carbohydrates (20 ), and ash (13 ) (Harb M.,...

Analysis of Metal Cations and Inorganic Anions

The cations are quantitatively determined by atomic-absorption spectroscopy (AAS), whereas the anions are detected by ion chromatography (Arienzo M. and Capasso R., 2000). 9Archer M. H., Dillon V. M., Cambell-Platt G., and Owens J. D. (1994) The partitioning of diacetyl between food oils and water. Food Chem, 50, 407-409. Attempts to separate soluble anions from OMWW by ion-exchange or to remove the oil fraction by solid-phase or solvent extractions were not completely satisfactory and erratic...

Foreword to the First Edition

Olive-milling like every human activity and industrial process results in a low-entropy desired product and a high-entropy unwanted by-product or waste termed olive-mill waste. The production of olive oil, viewed in a holistic perspective, begins with the picking of olives and ends after their processing in olive-mills. Olive-mill technology at present generates a variety of waste in both energy and mass forms. In addition to solid waste generated in the olive groves by annual pruning of olive...

Recovery of Organic Compounds

Several techniques exist, which allow some potentially valuable organic compounds contained in the OMWW to be extracted. The current state-of-the-art uses specific solvents and ultrafiltration reverse osmosis techniques, which require the application of sophisticated technologies, which in turn, require that complex chemical facilities are available. Pectins are natural hydrocolloids found in higher plants that are widely used as gelling agents, stabilizers, and emulsifiers in the food...

Production of Various Products

OMWW has a sugar content of about 1.6-5 (w v) that can serve as a source for alcohol production (Fiestas Ros de Ursinos J.A., 1961a,b, 1967 Fernandez-Bolanos J. et al., 1983). A possibility for the utilization of sugars is their transformation to ethanol and recovery of the alcohol by distillation (Martinengri G.B., 1963 Oliveira de J.S., 1974). Oliveira de (1974) studied the effect of the yeasts Saccharomyces wine 31 B2, S. mollasses, bread yeast, Candida utilis and the natural fauna on...

Table Olives

The average world production of table olives for the harvesting years 1999 2000-2002 2003 was 1,485,300 metric tons (IOOC, 2004)46. The world production of table olives has been increasing and reached a record level of 1,773,500 metric tons in the 2002 2003 season (nearly 50 increase based on the 1990 1991 season). Production for the 2004 2005 season is estimated at 1,465,500 metric tons (IOOC, 2004)47. Most production occurs in countries around the Mediterranean basin and in the Middle-East...

Olive Growing and Environmental Effects

Intense fragmentation is a feature of olive cultivation. Many small holdings, often farmed on a part-time basis, constitute a non-inconsiderable part of the EU olive growing area. The area covered by olive groves or plantations in the EU is approximately 5,163,000 ha, roughly 4 of the utilizable agricultural area of which 48 are in Spain, 22.5 in Italy, and 20 in Greece (European Commission, Directorate-General for Agriculture, 2000). The cultivated area has been more than doubled since 1980....