Taxonomic notes

Taxonomic notes of the important ostracod species are presented herein following mainly the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part Q, Arthropoda 3, edited by Moore (1961). The abbreviations L, W, H in this chapter refer to length, width and height of representative specimens. The abbreviations M and F refer to male and female forms, respectively. Serial reference numbers (A10186 to A10220) are given only to the photographed specimens.

Subclass Ostracoda Latreille 1806

Order Platycopida Sars 1866 Suborder Platycopina Sars 1866 Family Cytherellidae Sars 1866 Genus Cytherella Jones 1849 Cytherella alii Elewa 1997 (Fig. 7-3)

Cytherella sp.1 Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 398, pl. 1, fig. 1; Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 173, pl. 1, fig. 1; Elewa 1994, p. 133, pl. 1, figs. 1-2. Cytherella alii Elewa 1997, p. 369, fig. 20-1, 2.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.625 0.250 0.375

Remarks.- The present specimens compare well with the description and illustrations of the above mentioned authors. Sexual dimorphism is clear with females wider posteriorly than males.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Cytherella lagenalis Marliere 1958

Cytherella lagenalis - Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 777, pl. 1, figs. 1-2, 45; Elewa 1998b, p. 9, fig. 4: 1.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.750 0.325 0.450

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- late early Eocene (Ypresian; P9).

Cytherella rayanensis Elewa 1999

Cytherella sp. 2 Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 400, pl. 1, figs. 2-3; Morsi 1991, p. 81, pl. 1, figs. 4-5.

Cytherella rayanensis Elewa 1999, p. 49, pl. 1, figs. 1-3.

Dimensions.- L W H

Remarks.- The present species differs from Cytherella alii Elewa in having: 1) more numerous puncta anteriorly and posteriorly; 2) different shape in dorsal view where the maximum width in dorsal view is at the posterior end, showing a triangular shape, in C. rayanensis but in front of the posterior end in C. alii; 3) and relatively larger size of carapace. Sexual dimorphism is clear with females wider posteriorly than males.

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Order Podocopida Muller 1894 Suborder Podocopina Sars 1866 Superfamily Bairdiacea Sars 1866 Family Bairdiidae Sars 1866 Genus Bairdia Mc'Coy 1844 Bairdia ilaroensis Reyment and Reyment 1959 (Fig. 7-6)

Bairdia ilaroensis - Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 780, pl. 1, fig. 15; Elewa 1994, p. 137, Pl.1, fig. 9; Bassiouni and Luger 1996, p. 8, pl. 1, fig. 10-13; Honigstein and Rosenfeld in Honigstein, Rosenfeld and Benjamini 2002, p. 370, pl. 1, fig. 14.

Dimensions.- L W H

1.125 0.700 0.750

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range. - late early Eocene (Ypresian; P8).

Genus Bairdoppilata Coryell, Sample and Jennings 1935 Type species: Bairdia martyni Coryell, Sample and Jennings 1935 Bairoppilata crebra (Deltel 1964) (Fig. 7-5)

Bairdia crebra Deltel 1964, p. 138, pl. 1, figs. 15-17; Blondeau 1971, pl. 1, fig. 9; Helal 1990, p. 184, pl. 8, fig. 18.

Bairdoppilata crebra Elewa 1994, p. 139, pl. 2, figs. 1-4; Elewa 1997, p.

Bairdia crolifai Morsi in Morsi et al., 2003, p. 147, pl. 1, figs. 3-5.

Dimensions.- L W H

1.875 0.400 0.750

Remarks.- The present form was assigned to Bairdoppilata on the basis of the presence of a series of auxilliary teeth and sockets just above mid-height at the end margins. Morsi in Morsi et al. (2003) assigned this form to Bairdia crolifai n. sp., where he differentiated between B. crebra and his new species by the stronger convex dorsal margin and the denticulate anterior and posterior margins of the former species. Actually, Elewa (1994) and Elewa et al. (1998) studied the present form from the Eastern Desert and Fayoum, respectively, and stated that this form has anterior and posterior denticulation in the internal view (see Elewa 1994, p. 139, pl. 2, figs. 1-4). Also, Elewa (1998a) compared a representative of this form with that of Bassiouni et al. (1984) and stated that they are similar and should be assigned Bairdoppilata crebra based on quantitative shape analysis (Fourier analysis). Therefore, the opinion of Morsi in Morsi et al. (2003) is herein rejected and his form is considered in the present study as a junior synonym of B. crebra.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the present study. The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Superfamily Cypridacea Baird 1845 Family Cyprididae Baird 1845 Genus Novocypris Ducasse 1967 Novocypris eocenana Ducasse 1967 (Fig. 7-10)

Novocypris eocenanus Ducasse 1967, p. 34, pl. 1, figs. 17-1 . Novocypris eocenana Ducasse 1969, p. 33, pl. 2, fig. 40; Blondeau 1971, p. 30, pl. 2, figs. 12-14; Shamah 1981, pl. 21, fig. 2; Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 182, pl. 1, fig. 2; Oertli 1985, p. 310, pl. 89, figs. 14-15; Zalat 1987, pl. 6, fig. 5; Helal 1990, p. 193, pl. 8, fig. 7; Allam et al. 1991, p. 457, pl. 2, fig. 15; Elewa 1994, p. 141, pl. 2, figs. 5-7; Elewa 1997, p. 372, fig. 20-4; Elewa 1998b, p. 9, fig. 4:5.

Dimensions.- L H

Remarks.- Female carapaces are wider and higher than males. The greatest width is postero-median in females in contrast to the median in males. It is worth to mention that Morsi in Morsi et al. (2003) identified a new species, he named Paracypris naalunensis for the forms previously named as Novocypris eocenana from Fayoum. In 1994, Elewa illustrated the internal view of N. eocenana from the Eastern Desert (Elewa 1994, p. 141, pl. 2, fig. 7), and noticed that the muscle scar pattern is typical to the genus Novocypris Ducasse (anterior row of four curvilinear scars with two posterior scars in front of the lower two of the anterior scars). On the other hand, Elewa et al. (1998) recognized the same external form of N. eocenana from Fayoum, but could not describe the internal features. Morsi assigned this last form to his new species. However, the presence of N. eocenana in the Eastern Desert (see Elewa 1994) and the complete resemblance of the external features of this species with that form of Fayoum (see Elewa et al. 1998) make it doubtful to use the new species of Morsi in Morsi et al. (2003) for these forms.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of section 3 of the present study. The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (middle to late Lutetian; P11-14).

Family Candonidae Kaufmann 1900 Subfamily Paracypridinae Sars 1923 Genus Paracypris Sars 1866 Paracypris maghaghaensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 8-2)

Paracypris sp. Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 400, pl. 1, fig. 23. Paracypris maghaghaensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 174, pl. 1, figs. 34; Elewa 1994, p. 142, pl. 2, figs. 8-9; Elewa 1997, p. 372, fig. 20-5; Elewa 1999, pl. 1, fig. 12.

Dimensions.- L H

0.525 0.275

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (middle to late Lutetian; P11-14).

Superfamily Cytheracea Baird 1850

Family Cytherideidae Sars 1925 Subfamily Cytherideinae Sars 1925 Genus Clithrocytheridea Stephenson 1936 Clithrocytheridea? tarfaensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 9-7)

Clithrocytheridea? tarfaensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 180, pl. 2, figs. 13-16; Elewa 1994, p. 144, pl. 2, figs. 13-14; Elewa 1997, p. 372; Honigstein and Rosenfeld in Honigstein et al. 2002, p. 382, pl. 4, figs. 1314.

Dimensions.- L H

0.500 0.250

Remarks.- Honigstein and Rosenfeld, in Honigstein et al. (2002), have recognized this species from the middle to late Eocene deposits of the Negev area, southern Israel. Their specimens seem to have a larger carapace size than the holotype of Khalifa and Cronin and the present material.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Subfamily Krithinae Mandelstam 1958

Genus Krithe Brady, Crosskey and Robertson 1874 Krithe bartonensis (Jones 1857) (Fig. 7-11)

Cythere (Cytherideis) bartonensis Jones 1857, p. 50, pl. 5, fig. 23. Krithe bartonensis - Keij 1957, p. 85, pl. 8, figs. 11-17; Ducasse 1969, p. 55, pl. 3, fig. 70; Wehrli (ed) 1969, p. 21, pl. 5, fig. 12, pl. 15, figs. 4-6; Haskins 1970, p. 13, pl. 1, figs. 5-14; Blondeau 1971, p. 82, pl. 9, fig. 6; Yassini 1979, p. 383, pl. 8, figs. 4-6; Shamah 1981, pl. 21, fig. 1; Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 186, pl. 1, fig. 1; Morsi 1991, p. 99, pl. 3, figs. 45; Elewa 1994, p. 146, pl. 3, figs. 1, 2; Elewa 1998b, p. 9, fig. 4:4; Elewa 1999, pl. 1, fig. 8.

Krithe sp. Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 408, pl. 1, figs. 26-27. Parakrithe? sp. Guernet et al. 1991, pl. 1, fig. 15.

Dimensions.- L H

0.525 0.250

Remarks.- This species, which signifies deeper water marine conditions, is very rare in the study area indicating the dominance of the shallow water in the studied sections, except the base of the Qarara Formation. It seems that Parakrithe? sp. of Guernet et al. (1991; pl. 1, fig. 15) represents Krithe bartonensis (Jones).

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Family Cytheruridae Muller 1894

Subfamily Cytheropterinae Hanai 1957 Genus Cytheropteron Sars 1866 Cytheropteron boukharyi Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 7-1)

Cytheropteron boukharyi Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 179, pl. 2, figs. 1721; Honigstein et al. 1991, p. 102, pl. 2, fig. 3; Elewa 1994, p. 148, pl. 3, figs. 4-6; Elewa 1997, p. 372, fig. 2:7, 8.

Dimensions.- L H

0.525 0.325

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Genus Microcosmia Crane 1965 Microcosmia gibberosa Bassiouni and Luger 1990 (Fig. 8-8)

Microcosmia gibberosa Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 801, pl. 8, figs. 1-6; Elewa 1994, p. 150, pl. 3, figs. 11-12; Elewa 1998b, p. 10, fig. 4:14.

Dimensions.- L H

Remarks.- Males are longer than females. The above measured dimensions are for middle Eocene specimens; early Eocene ones are a little smaller.

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area; The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- early to middle Eocene (Ypresian to late Lutetian).

Family Hemicytheridae Puri 1953

Genus Hornibrookella Moos 1965 Hornibrookella moosae Bassiouni and Luger 1996

Hornibrookella cf. H. cf. macropora (Bosquet) - Bassiouni 1969d, p. 214, pl. 21, figs. 8-9; Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 804, pl. 9, figs. 1-2, 4; Elewa 1998b, p. 12, fig. 4-11.

Hornibrookella moosae Bassiouni and Luger 1996, p. 40, pl. 12, figs. 1-5, 7-8; Honigstein and Rosenfeld in Honigstein et al. 2002, p. 376, pl. 3, fig. 9.

Dimensions.- L H

Remarks.- Only one female carapace was recognized in the present material, which compare well with the specimens of Bassiouni and Luger (1996) from the middle Eocene of northern Somalia.

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- early Eocene (Ypresian; P9).

Genus Limburgina Deroo 1967 Limburgina moosi Bassiouni 1969d

Limburgina moosi Bassiouni 1969d, p. 211, pl. 18, figs. 1-3; Shamah 1981, pl. 22, figs. 4a-c; Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 185, pl. 2, figs. 3a-c; Zalat 1987, pl. 7, figs. 7a-d; Helal 1990, p. 210, pl. 10, figs. 13-15; Allam, Shamah and Zalat 1991, pl. 2, fig. 13; Morsi 1991, p. 96, pl. 3, figs. 1-3; Elewa 1994, p. 153, pl. 3, figs. 13-14; Elewa 1998b, p. 10, fig. 4:6.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.700 0.275 0.350

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Genus Martinicythere Bassiouni 1969c Martinicythere samalutensis samalutensis Bassiouni 1969d (Fig. 9-6)

Martinicythere samalutensis samalutensis Bassiouni 1969d, p. 217, pl. 18, figs. 8-11, pl. 19, figs. 8-10; Haggag 1979, pl. 11, fig. 15; Helal 1990, p. 217, pl. 10, figs. 4-6, pl. 12, fig. 13; Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 206, pl. 4, figs. 5-6; Elewa 1994, p. 154, pl. 4, figs. 1-3.

Martinicythere samalutensis - Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 404, pl. 1, figs. 11-1.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.600 0.300 0.375

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range. - Middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Family Loxoconchidae Sars 1925 Genus Loxoconcha Sars 1866 Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 7-2; Fig. 9-1)

Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 179, pl. 1, figs. 21-22; Boukhary et al. 1982, p. 62, pl. 2, figs. 7-8; Aref 1982, p. 179, pl. 22, figs. 7-8; Elewa 1994, p. 156, pl. 4, figs. 4-6; Elewa 1997, p. 373, fig. 20: 9, 10.

Dimensions.- L W H

Remarks.- Male carapaces are more elongate and with a more acute postero-dorsal end than female carapaces.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Loxoconcha blanckenhorni Bassiouni and Luger 1990 (Fig. 9-3)

Loxoconcha blanckenhorni Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 808, pl. 10, figs. 10-11, 13-14.

Dimensions.- L H

Remarks.- Male carapaces are more elongate and thinner with subrectangular shape in lateral view than female carapaces, which have the typical rohmboidal shape in lateral view like the holotype.

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- early Eocene (Ypresian; P9).

Family Trachyleberididae Sylvester-Bradley 1948 Subfamily Schizocytherinae Mandelstam 1960 Genus Schizocythere Triebel 1950 Schizocythere fadlensis Cronin and Khalifa 1979 (Fig. 8-6)

Schizocythere fadlensis Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 406-408, pl. 2, figs. 14-15; Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 194, pl. 5, fig. 9; Elewa 1994, p. 160, pl. 5, figs. 1-4; Elewa 1998b, p. 12, fig. 4: 3.

Schizocythere sp. Guernet et al. 1991, pl. 1, figs. 6, 8.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.425 0.250 0.275

Remarks.- The figured specimens of Guernet et al. (1991, pl. 1, figs. 6, 8) as Schizocythere sp. seems to represent Schizocythere fadlensis Cronin and Khalifa.

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Subfamily Trachyleberidinae Sylvester-Bradley 1948

Genus Trachyleberis Brady 1898 Trachyleberis nodosus Bassiouni 1969b (Fig. 7-4, 9; Fig. 8-1)

Trachyleberis nodosus nodosus Bassiouni 1969b, p. 385, pl. 24, figs. 1-3; Zalat 1987, pl. 8, figs. 1-3; Allam et al. 1991, p. 457, pl. 2, fig. 18; Elewa 1994, p. 164, pl. 5, figs. 8-9; Elewa 1998b, p. 12, fig. 4: 16. Trachyleberis nodosa - Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 401, pl. 2, figs. 9-10; Guernet et al. 1991, p. 302, pl. 2, figs. 1, 4; Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 196, pl. 1, figs. 1-4.

Dimensions.- L H

1.125 0.575

Remarks.- Bassiouni (1969a) recognized three subspecies (T. nodosus nodosus; T. nodosus nodosulcatus; T. nodosus reticulatus) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam, east of Cairo city. On the other hand, Elewa (2002a) concluded that the change from heavily tubercular pattern in T. nodosus nodosus to more reticulate pattern in T. nodosus reticulatus through an intermediate form in T. nodosus nodosulcatus is due to the availability of the calcium carbonates in the water which changes with fluctuations in water depth and other environmental factors. Therefore, he considered these three subspecies as three morphs of a single species, Trachyleberis nodosus. The above dimensions are for T. nodosus morphotype A (MTA).

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Genus Acanthocythereis Howe 1963 Acanthocythereis projecta Bassiouni 1969b

Acanthocythereis projecta Bassiouni 1969b, p. 391, pl. 25, figs. 5-6; Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 198, pl. 1, figs. 7-8; Elewa 1998b, p. 13, fig. 4: 18.

Dimensions.- L

0.750

0.400

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Acanthocythereis? sp.

Dimensions.- L H

0.875 0.425

Remarks.- Specimens of this form are questionably assigned to the genus Acanthocythereis on the basis of shape and reticulation, however, the internal features are required for a definite identification of this form. This form resembles Acanthocythereis? sp. of Cronin and Khalifa (1979) but it differs in having larger size and relatively coarser pattern of reticulation. It also resembles Acanthocythereis salahii Bassiouni but it differs in having less spinose surface and coarser pattern of reticulation.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Genus Cativella Coryell and Fields 1937 Cativella qurnensis Bassiouni 1969b

Cativella qurnensis Bassiouni 1969b, p. 398, pl. 27, figs. 8a-c; El Khoudary and Helmdach 1981, pl. 7, figs. 3-5; Shamah 1981, pl. 21, figs. 11a-b; Bassiouni, Boukhary, Shamah and Blondeau 1984, p. 183, pl. 1, figs. 11a-b; Allam, Shamah and Zalat 1991, p. 457, pl. 2, fig. 5; Elewa 1994, p. 176, pl. 6, figs. 1, 2; Elewa 1998b, p. 13, fig. 4: 10. Costa qurnensis - Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 403, pl. 1, figs. 20-21. Cativella? qurnensis - Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 198, pl. 2, figs. 1-2, 4.

Dimensions.- L H

0.725 0.400

Remarks.- The present form resembles that described by Bassiouni (1969a) from the Eocene deposits of Helwan.

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Genus Paracosta Siddiqui 1971 Paracosta mokattamensis (Bassiouni 1969b) (Fig. 9-8)

Costa mokattamensis Bassiouni 1969b, p. 399, pl. 27, figs. 3-4; Boukhary et al. 1982, p. 57, pl. 2, figs. 5a-c; Aref 1982, p. 172, pl. 22, figs. 5a-c. Costa berggreni - Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 175, pl. 2, figs. 3-5.

Dimensions.- L W H

Remarks.- Elewa (this volume) concluded, based on geometric morphometrics of carapace shape, that Paracosta mokattamensis (Bassiouni), Paracosta humboldti (Bassiouni) and Paracosta ducassae (Bassiouni et al.) should be considered as three morphs of one species (Paracosta mokattamensis (Bassiouni)), MTA, MTB and MTC, respectively. The present specimens belong to MTA. On the other hand, Morsi in Morsi et al. (2003) assigned the previously named P. ducassae to Reymenticosta aliena (Bassiouni). He based his conclusion on the typical resemblance, in his opinion, of the males of Reymenticosta aliena with the original illustrations for P. ducassae (Bassiouni et al.). However, the smaller size of P. ducassae (MTC of Elewa, this volume), the doubt about the type species of the genus Reymenticosta (see Keen et al. 1994), the morphometric study of Elewa (this volume) and neglecting the comparison for females in both forms indicate that P. ducassae is nothing more than a morph of P. mokattamensis as stated by Elewa (this volume).

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Paracosta mokattamensis praemokattamensis (Bassiouni 1969a)

Costa mokattamensis praemokattamensis Bassiouni 1969a, p. 10, pl. 1, figs. 6-7; Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 777, pl. 1, figs. 1-2, 4-5; Elewa 1998b, p. 9, fig. 4: 1.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.450 0.275 0.275

Remarks.- Bassiouni and Elewa (1999) stated that Paracosta mokattamensis praemokattamensis (Bassiouni) seems to be a good indicator of the lower/middle Eocene boundary.

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- late early Eocene (Ypresian; P8-9).

Paracosta praetricostata praetricostata (Bassiouni 1969b) (Fig. 9-9)

Costa praetricostata praetricostata Bassiouni 1969b, p. 406, pl. 25, figs. 7-9; Zalat 1987, pl. 6, fig. 20, pl. 7, fig. 11; Helal 1990, p. 220, pl. 11, figs. 1-2; Allam et al. 1991, p. 457, pl. 2, fig. 7; Elewa 1994, p. 170, pl. 6, figs. 9-12.

Costa praetricostata - Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 199, pl. 3, figs. 1-3, 5-6.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.675 0.325 0.400

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of section 3 of the present study.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (middle Lutetian; P11).

Chrysocythere Ruggieri 1962 Chrysocythere bahnasaensis Elewa 1997 (Fig. 9-4)

Costa sp. 1 Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 176, pl. 1, figs. 11-12. Chrysocythere sp. Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 200, pl. 3, fig. 4. Chrysocythere bahnasaensis Elewa 1997, p. 373, fig. 20: 14, 17, 18. Paleocosta sp. aff. mokattamensis Guernet et al. 1991, p. 308, pl. 2, fig. 5.

Dimensions.- L H

0.750 0.425

Remarks.- Elewa (1997) in his description of the holotype of this species mentioned that the surface is ornamented by reticulation and three longitudinal ribs, however, it shows a fourth longitudinal rib in the lateral view. The figured specimen of Guernet et al. (1991) as Paleocosta sp. aff. mokattamensis seems to represent Chrysocythere bahnasaensis Elewa.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Genus Reticulina Bassiouni 1969a Reticulina cameroni (Khalifa and Cronin 1979) (Fig. 8-12)

Costa? cameroni Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 175, pl. 1, figs. 10, 13-15.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.600 0.250 0.300

Remarks.- This species is attributed to the genus Reticulina Bassiouni based on the undeveloped longitudinal ridges and the ornamentation that is fundamentally reticulation.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Reticulina heluanensis (Bassiouni 1969b) (Fig. 8-5)

Carinocythereis (Reticulina) heluanensis Bassiouni 1969b, p. 394-396, pl. 26, figs. 5-10.

Carinocythereis (Reticulina) ismaili Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 184, pl. 2, figs. 6-7.

Anticythereis cf. heluanensis - Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 405, pl. 2, fig. 13; Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 176, pl. 2, figs. 7-9. Reticulina heluanensis - Morsi 1991, p. 110, pl. 4, figs. 9-10. Reticulina ismaili - Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 198, pl. 1, fig. 11.

Dimensions.- L H

0.875 0.375

Remarks.- Elewa (2002a) assigned the difference in outline between Reticulina heluanensis (Bassiouni) and Reticulina ismaili (Bassiouni et al.) to shape polymorphism described by Reyment (1988). Therefore, he considered these two species as two morphs of Reticulina heluanensis (Bassiouni), in which Reticulina heluanensis represents morphotype A (MTA) and Reticulina ismaili represents morphotype B (MTB).

Occurrence.- For Reticulina heluanensis MTA, the Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of section 3 of the study area. For Reticulina heluanensis MTB, the Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (middle Lutetian, for MTA, to late Lutetian, for MTB).

Subfamily Buntoniinae Apostolescu 1961 Genus Buntonia Howe 1935 Buntonia jordanica Bassiouni 1969c (Fig. 9-11)

Buntonia jordanica Bassiouni 1969c, p. 206, pl. 24, figs. 5-6; pl. 25, figs. 1-4; Haggag 1979, pl. 11, fig. 19; Ismail 1992, pl. 2, fig. 3; Elewa 1994, p. 176, pl. 7, figs. 6-8; Elewa 1997, p. 374, fig. 20: 20. Buntonia cf. jordanica - Honigstein et al. 1991, p. 102, pl. 1, fig. 13.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.500 0.250 0.325

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of section 3 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (middle Lutetian; P11).

Genus Asymmetricythere Bassiouni 1971 Asymmetricythere yousefi Bassiouni 1971 (Fig. 7-7)

Asymmetricythere yousefi Bassiouni 1971, p. 180, pl. 8, figs. 1-5; Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 406, pl. 1, figs. 13-15; Shamah 1981, pl. 21, figs. 9a-c; Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 185, pl. 1, figs. 13a-c; Zalat 1987, pl. 9, figs. 3a-h; Helal 1990, p. 203, pl. 9, fig. 4; Allam et al. 1991, p. 457, pl. 2, fig. 1; Morsi 1991, p. 118, pl. 5, figs. 7-9; Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 204, pl. 3, figs. 13; Elewa 1994, p. 179, pl. 7, fig. 12; Elewa 1998b, p. 13, fig. 4: 12.

Dimensions.- L H

0.900 0.500

Occurrence.- The Qarara Formation; the middle Eocene of section 5 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (late Lutetian).

Genus Digmocythere Mandelstam 1958 Digmocythere cronini Elewa 2003 (Fig. 9-5)

Digmocythere cronini Elewa 2003, p. 8, fig. 16: 1-5.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.700 0.375 0.260

Remarks.- It is worth noting that the validity of the genus Digmocythere Mandelstam is questionable because of different factors in which the most important one is that the American species and the northern African species, all were apparently shallow water taxa, were separated by the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, therefore it is not clear how they are genetically related. Further studies for the internal features of this genus are needed to solve this serious problem.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- Middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Digmocythere ismaili (Bassiouni 1971) (Fig. 7-8)

Brachycythere (Digmocythere) ismaili Bassiouni 1971, p. 170, pl. 7, figs. 5-6;Haggag 1979, pl. 11, fig. 11; Shamah 1981, pl. 23, figs. 1a-c; Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 184, pl. 2, figs. 1a-c; Zalat 1987, pl. 10, figs. 5a-b; Helal 1990, p. 200, pl. 9, fig. 9; Allam et al. 1991, pl. 2, fig. 4; Morsi 1991, p. 87, pl. 2, figs. 1-3; Honigstein et al. 1991, p.104, pl. 2, fig. 6. Brachycythere? ismaili - Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 202, pl. 4, figs. 1.

Dimensions.- L H

Remarks.- The greatest width is posterior in female carapaces while it is behind the middle in male carapaces. Moreover, the ventro-lateral part is more swollen in female carapaces than male ones. On the other hand, Elewa (2003) used the morphometric analyses to support the suggestion of Boukhary et al. (1982) in placing Digmocythere omarai Cronin and Khalifa as the ancestor of D. ismaili (Bassiouni).

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Subfamily Campylocytherinae Puri 1960 Genus Anticythereis Bold 1946 Anticythereis saitoi Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 8-3)

Anticythereis saitoi Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 177, pl. 2, figs. 10-12; Elewa 1994, p. 186, pl. 8, figs. 13-15; Elewa 1997, p. 375, fig. 20: 25. Reticulina cf. saitoi - Boukhary et al. 1993, p. 198, pl. 1, figs. 10.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.775 0.325 0.375

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Anticythereis seylingi Cronin and Khalifa 1979 (Fig. 9-10)

Anticythereis seylingi Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 405, pl. 2, figs. 19-21; Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 177, pl. 2, fig. 6; Elewa 1994, p. 187, pl. 9, figs. 1-3; Elewa 1997, p. 375, fig. 20: 24.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.700 0.300 0.400

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Genus Leguminocythereis Howe and Law 1936 Leguminocythereis africana Bassiouni 1969d (Fig. 8-9)

Leguminocythereis africana Bassiouni 1969d, p. 223, pl. 21, figs. 4-6; Cronin and Khalifa 1979, p. 404, pl. 1, fig. 25; El Khoudary and Helmdach 1981, pl. 7, fig. 6; Shamah 1981, pl. 21, fig. 6; Bassiouni et al. 1984, p. 186, pl. 1, fig. 6; Zalat 1987, pl. 7, figs. 1-2; Allam et al. 1991, pl. 2, fig. 12; Morsi 1991, p. 93, pl. 2, figs. 9-10; Bassiouni et al. 1994, p. 262, pl. 2, figs. 1-2, Elewa 1994, p. 188, pl. 9, figs. 4-6; Elewa 1997, p. 375, fig. 20: 23.

Dimensions.- L W H

Remarks. - Female carapaces are shorter, wider and higher than males.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of sections 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Leguminocythereis sadeki Bassiouni 1969d (Fig. 8-11, 13)

Leguminocythereis praesadeki Boukhary et al. 1982, p. 60, pl. 2, figs. 3a-b; Aref 1982, p. 176, pl. 22, fig. 3; Elewa 1994, p. 190, pl. 9, figs. 8-10; Elewa 1997, p. 376, fig. 20: 28.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.800 0.450 0.475

Remarks.- Bassiouni and Elewa (1999) clued that Leguminocythereis sadeki Bassiouni, Leguminocythereis praesadeki Boukhary et al. and Leguminocythereis hassani Khalifa and Cronin are representatives of environmentally cued polymorphism and they are nothing more than three ecomorphs of Leguminocythereis sadeki Bassiouni, MTA, MTB and MTC, respectively. The present specimens belong to MTB.

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of section 3, 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.-middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Family Xestoleberididae Sars 1928 Genus Xestoleberis Sars 1866 Xestoleberis kenawyi Khalifa and Cronin 1979 (Fig. 8-7, 10)

Xestoleberis? kenawyi Khalifa and Cronin 1979, p. 181, pl. 1, figs. 7-8; Honigstein et al. 1991, p. 100, pl. 1, figs. 7-8; Elewa 1994, p. 192, pl. 10, figs. 1-3; Elewa 1997, p. 376, fig. 20: 27; Elewa 1998b, p. 14, fig. 4: 19. Xestoleberis kenawyi Honigstein and Rosenfeld in Honigstein et al. 2002, p. 380, pl. 4, fig. 12.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.500 0.325 0.350

Occurrence.- The Maghagha Formation; the middle Eocene of section3 , 4 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.-middle Eocene (early to late Lutetian; P10-14).

Xestoleberis kiseibaensis Bassiouni and Luger 1990

Xestoleberis kiseibaensis Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 848, pl. 25, figs. 812 Elewa 1994, p. 193, pl. 10, figs. 4-6; Elewa 1998b, p. 14, fig. 4: 20.

Dimensions.- L W H

0.450 0.275 0.275

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- late early Eocene (Ypresian; P8-9).

Genus Uroleberis Triebel 1958 Uroleberis triebeli Bassiouni and Luger 1990

Uroleberis triebeli Bassiouni and Luger 1990, p. 848, pl. 25, figs. 13-17.

Dimensions.- L H

0.470 0.320

Remarks.- The present form compares well with the specimens of Bassiouni and Luger (1990), however, their specimens have larger carapaces.

Occurrence.- The Minia Formation; the early Eocene of section 1 of the study area.

Stratigraphical range.- late early Eocene (Ypresian; P8).

Fig. 7. 1. Cytheropteron boukharyi Khalifa and Cronin; left side view of carapace, x 200; 2. Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin; left side view of carapace, x 200. 3. Cytherella alii Elewa; left side view of carapace, x 100. 4, 9. Trachyleberis nodosus MTA Bassiouni; 4. left side view of female carapace, x 100; 9. left side view of female carapace, x 100. 5. Bairdoppilata crebra (Deltel); right side view of carapace, x 100. 6. Bairdia ilaroensis Reyment and Reyment; left side view of carapace, x 100. 7. Asymmetricythere yousefi Bassiouni; right side view of carapace, x 150. 8. Digmocythere ismaili (Bassiouni); left side view of carapace, x 100. 10. Novocypris eocenana Ducasse; left side view of carapace, x 100. 11. Krithe bartonensis (Jones); right side view of carapace, x 200

Fig. 7. 1. Cytheropteron boukharyi Khalifa and Cronin; left side view of carapace, x 200; 2. Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin; left side view of carapace, x 200. 3. Cytherella alii Elewa; left side view of carapace, x 100. 4, 9. Trachyleberis nodosus MTA Bassiouni; 4. left side view of female carapace, x 100; 9. left side view of female carapace, x 100. 5. Bairdoppilata crebra (Deltel); right side view of carapace, x 100. 6. Bairdia ilaroensis Reyment and Reyment; left side view of carapace, x 100. 7. Asymmetricythere yousefi Bassiouni; right side view of carapace, x 150. 8. Digmocythere ismaili (Bassiouni); left side view of carapace, x 100. 10. Novocypris eocenana Ducasse; left side view of carapace, x 100. 11. Krithe bartonensis (Jones); right side view of carapace, x 200

Fig. 8. 1. Trachyleberis nodosus MTA Bassiouni; left side view of male carapace, x 100. 2. Paracypris maghaghaensis Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of carapace, x 100. 3. Anticythereis saitoi Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of carapace, x 100. 4. Xestoleberis kiseibaensis Bassiouni and Luger; right side view of carapace, x 150. 5. Reticulina heluanensis MTA (Bassiouni); left side view of female carapace, x 100. 6. Schizocythere fadlensis Cronin and Khalifa; left side view of carapace, x 150. 7, 10. Xestoleberis kenawyi Khalifa and Cronin; 7. left side view of carapace, x 150; 10. right side view of carapace, x 100. 8. Microcosmia gibberosa Bassiouni and Luger; right side view of female carapace, x 200. 9. Leguminocythereis africana Bassiouni; right side view of female carapace, x 40. 11, 13. Leguminocythereis sadeki MTB Bassiouni; 11. left side view of carapace, x 100; 13. right side view of carapace, x 100. 12. Reticulina cameroni (Khalifa and Cronin); left side view of carapace, x 100

Fig. 8. 1. Trachyleberis nodosus MTA Bassiouni; left side view of male carapace, x 100. 2. Paracypris maghaghaensis Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of carapace, x 100. 3. Anticythereis saitoi Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of carapace, x 100. 4. Xestoleberis kiseibaensis Bassiouni and Luger; right side view of carapace, x 150. 5. Reticulina heluanensis MTA (Bassiouni); left side view of female carapace, x 100. 6. Schizocythere fadlensis Cronin and Khalifa; left side view of carapace, x 150. 7, 10. Xestoleberis kenawyi Khalifa and Cronin; 7. left side view of carapace, x 150; 10. right side view of carapace, x 100. 8. Microcosmia gibberosa Bassiouni and Luger; right side view of female carapace, x 200. 9. Leguminocythereis africana Bassiouni; right side view of female carapace, x 40. 11, 13. Leguminocythereis sadeki MTB Bassiouni; 11. left side view of carapace, x 100; 13. right side view of carapace, x 100. 12. Reticulina cameroni (Khalifa and Cronin); left side view of carapace, x 100

Fig. 9. 1. Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of female carapace, x 200. 2. Paracosta mokattamensis praemokattamensis (Bassiouni); right side view of female carapace, x 200. 3. Loxoconcha blanckenhorni Bassiouni and Luger; right side view of female carapace, x 100. 4. Chrysocythere bahnasaensis; left side view of female carapace, x 150. 5. Digmocythere cronini Elewa; left side view of female carapace, x 350. 6. Martinicythere samalutensis samalutensis Bassiouni; right side view of carapace, x 150. 7. Clithrocytheridea? tarfaensis Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of carapace, x 150. 8. Paracosta mokattamensis MTA (Bassiouni); left side view of male carapace, x 100. 9. Paracosta praetricostata praetricostata (Bassiouni); left side view of carapace, x 100. 10. Anticythereis seylingi Cronin and Khalifa; left side view of female carapace, x 100. 11. Buntonia jordanica Bassiouni; right side view of carapace, x 150

Fig. 9. 1. Loxoconcha mataiensis Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of female carapace, x 200. 2. Paracosta mokattamensis praemokattamensis (Bassiouni); right side view of female carapace, x 200. 3. Loxoconcha blanckenhorni Bassiouni and Luger; right side view of female carapace, x 100. 4. Chrysocythere bahnasaensis; left side view of female carapace, x 150. 5. Digmocythere cronini Elewa; left side view of female carapace, x 350. 6. Martinicythere samalutensis samalutensis Bassiouni; right side view of carapace, x 150. 7. Clithrocytheridea? tarfaensis Khalifa and Cronin; right side view of carapace, x 150. 8. Paracosta mokattamensis MTA (Bassiouni); left side view of male carapace, x 100. 9. Paracosta praetricostata praetricostata (Bassiouni); left side view of carapace, x 100. 10. Anticythereis seylingi Cronin and Khalifa; left side view of female carapace, x 100. 11. Buntonia jordanica Bassiouni; right side view of carapace, x 150

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