Fossil fuel exploitation

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For CH4 emissions from fossil fuel exploitation it is assumed that the most profitable measures would be taken first. Therefore, increased maintenance is assumed at a 'cost' of-$200 per tonne CH4 in 1990 and increased on-site use of otherwise vented gas at a cost of -$100 in 2000 and 2025. Other measures are taken later in time at a cost of $100 in 2050, $200 in 2075 and $300 in 2100. In 1990, the introduction of improved inspection and maintenance is assumed. In 2000 and 2025 extra measures are taken to increase on-site gas use from vents and flares. The more expensive measures are taken between 2050 and 2100. Cost estimates are based on AEAT (1998) and De Jager et al (1996). The cost development is based on my own assumptions.

The content of the six CH4 reduction packages is summarized in Table 13.5 along with the assumptions made on the costs of measures. It is assumed that

Table 13.5 Overview of options and costs that were used in the six methane reduction strategies in this study

Source of CH4

Description of option

US$1990/ tonne of avoided CH4 per year

Reference

Oil and gas

Increased inspection and

-200

De Jager et al (1996)

production

maintenance

Increased on-site use of otherwise

-100-10

DeJageretal (1996)

vented methane at oil and gas

production sites offshore

Increased flaring instead of venting

200-400

De Jager etal (1996)

Oil and gas

Accelerated pipeline modernization

500-1000

DeJageretal (1996)

transmission

Gas distribution

Improved leak control and repair

200

DeJageretal (1996)

Coal mining

Pre-mining degasification

40

IEA (1999)

Enhanced gob-well recovery

10

IEA (1999)

Ventilation air use

10

IEA (1999)

Cattle enteric

Improved production efficiency

0

Blok and de Jager

fermentation

(1994)

Improved feeding

5

EPA (1998)

Production enhancing agents

400

AEAT (1998)

Reducing animal numbers

0

Blok and de Jager (1994)

Increase rumen efficiency

3000-6000

AEAT (1998)

Manure

Dry storage

200

AEAT (1998)

Daily spreading

2000

AEAT (1998)

Large-scale digestion and biogas

1000

AEAT (1998)

recovery

Small-scale digestion and biogas

500

AEAT (1998)

recovery

Sewage treatment

Increased on-site use of biogas

50-500

Byfield etal (1997)

Landfills

Reduction of biodegradable waste to landfill by paper recycling

-2200

Meadows etal (1996)

Controlled gasification of waste

-350

DeJageretal (1996)

Landfill gas recovery and upgrading

-200

Meadows etal (1996)

Landfill gas recovery and use for heat

-50

Meadows et al (1996)

Reduction of biodegradable waste

1000-1800

Meadows etal (1996)

to landfill by composting or

incineration

Rice

Intermittent draining and other cultivation practices

5

Byfield etal (1997)

Biomass burning

Improved burning of traditional fuelwood

-100

Byfield etal (1997)

Reduced deforestation

200

Byfield etal (1997)

Reduced agricultural waste and

150

Byfield etal (1997)

savanna burning

the more expensive options are taken after 2025 and that measures costing more than $500/tonne avoided CH4 were too expensive for adoption. Table 13.6 gives an overview of the costs of mitigation by source sector and its assumed variation over time (1990-2100).

Table 13.6 Costs of reduction measures in US$1990 tonne-1 of CH4yr-1 in the period 1990-2100 as input to IMAGE

Source

1990

2000

2025

2050

2075

2100

Biomass burning

200

200

200

200

200

200

Agricultural waste burning

150

150

150

150

150

150

Savanna burning

150

150

150

150

150

150

Landfills

-50

-50

-200

-200

-350

-350

Sewage

50

100

200

300

400

500

Wetland rice

5

5

5

5

5

5

Animals

5

5

5

5

5

5

Animal waste

500

500

500

500

500

500

Fossil fuel exploitation

-200

-100

-100

100

200

300

Source: Based on own assumptions Van Amstel (2009) and Blok and de Jager (1994); De Jager et al (1996); Meadows et al (1996); Byfield et al (1997); EPA (1998); IEA (1999); and AEAT (1998)

Source: Based on own assumptions Van Amstel (2009) and Blok and de Jager (1994); De Jager et al (1996); Meadows et al (1996); Byfield et al (1997); EPA (1998); IEA (1999); and AEAT (1998)

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