This section presents an evaluation of various metals recovery technologies. The evaluations include the following: I) process description, 2) waste feed considerations, 3) pretreatment requirements, 4) posttreatment requirements, S) performance data, 6) availability, 7) environmental impact, and 3) costs. The focus is on established technologies; emerging technologies (e.g., freeze crystallization) are not addressed. Technologies addressed in this section include chemical precipitation, electrolytic recovery (e.g., electrowinning, electrodialysis), high-temperature metals recovery, membrane separation (e.g., ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis), leaching, adsorption (e.g., carbon adsorption, ion exchange), and evaporation.
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