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* Reference 7. IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING

* Reference 7. IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING

Iron and steel manufacturing includes the processing of all ferrous products that do not require machining. Production processes include sintering, cokemaklng, blast furnaces, pickling, hot forming, cold rolling, and hot coating. Approximately SO percent of all the plants 1n this industry are located in eight states: Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The plants are usually located around coal and iron mining regions, and plant production capacities vary from 50,000 to 2,000,000 Hg/yr (55,000 to 2,200,220 megatons/yr).

Typical waste streams generated by this industry include wastes from operations such as quenching and scrubbing. The hazardous wastes generated include EPA Hazardous Waste Nos. K061 and K062. K061 may be generated as a dust or a sludge, depending on its mode of collection (i.e., baghouse or scrubber). The majority of steelmaking electric furnaces, however, use baghouses to collect K0G1 dust. The most comroon metals found in the waste streams from this industry are cadmium, chromium, capper, lead, nickel, and zinc in varying concentrations (see Table 12), Metal concentrations are initially reduced through settling, chemical addition, filtration, and neutralization. Treatments vary for different processes and plants, but the most coirmon are scale pits, settling ponds, filtration, chemical addition, and recycling. Wastewater flow rates vary within each process, ranging up to 5300 gal/ton of product.

TABLE 12. AVERAGE METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING RAH WASTEWATER* (W/L)

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