The battery manufacturing industry generates approximately 369,097 Mg/yr of waste. Metals contained in battery waste sludges include silver, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and nickel. Nearly two-thirds of the lead in the United States is consumed in the production of storage batteries, lead-acid batteries contain positive PbO, and negative Pb electrodes or plates and sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. Cadmium functions as the negative electrode in nickel-cadmium and silver-cadmium batteries. The battery manufacturing industry and battery consumers produce the greatest amount of waste among the smal1-quantity generators. The largest fraction comes from vehicle maintenance facilities as a result of the disposal of lead-acid batteries. Batteries are generally disposed of through recycling. Table 14 presents average metal concentrations found in wastewaters resulting from the manufacture of lead-acid batteries.
TABLE 14. AVERAGE METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF LEAD-ACID BATTERY MANUFACTURE WASTEWATERS4
Concentrations in wastewater,
Silver line total hexavalent
10 10 430 ND 430 14,000 310 10 1,100
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You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.