How I Survived Melanoma Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

Complete Guide to Preventing Skin Cancer. We all know enough to fear the name, just as we do the words tumor and malignant. But apart from that, most of us know very little at all about cancer, especially skin cancer in itself. If I were to ask you to tell me about skin cancer right now, what would you say? Apart from the fact that its a cancer on the skin, that is.

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How I Survived Malignant Melanom

By The Time You've Finished Reading How I Survived Melanoma Skin Cancer Seven Survivors Tell Their Stories. You'll Feel Like A New Person, with A New, More Positive Outlook! You will learn: 1. How do I know if I have melanoma? What are the signs and symptoms? I wanted to know why the doctor was so concerned when she looked at that little mole on my forearm. What was it that looked so sinister? How worried should I be? Was the doctor over-reacting? 2. What tests will the doctor carry out to see if I have melanoma? Will they be able to tell me on the spot if there is a problem? Or will I have to wait for days, fretting about whats going on? 3. How curable is melanoma? If they do tell me its melanoma, what exactly does that mean? Is it a death sentence? Will they tell me You have 12 months to live. Get your life in order and prepare for the worst.? 4. What are the stages of the disease? The reading Id done said that there were different stages of melanoma. What are the symptoms of each stage? What are the survival rates of each stage? If I had a later stage melanoma, wouldnt I know about it? Wouldnt I actually feel like I was sick? 5. How quickly does the disease progress or spread? Should I have gone to the doctor sooner? Id noticed the mole changing over about 3 months. Was this delay critical? 6. How is melanoma normally treated? Would I have to go through chemotherapy and radiation treatment? If so, for how long? What are the odds of curing the disease using these treatments? How extensive is any surgery likely to be? How big will the scars be? 7. What are the common side effects of the treatments? Would I lose my hair? Would I become sterile? What else could I expect? 8. What alternative treatments are available? Id heard of people going on special macro-biotic diets. Id seen lots of herbal remedies on the internet. Which of these are proven and documented, and which ones are snake oil? Is it possible to combine alternative treatments with surgical other western treatments? How do I find a doctor that is open to using both alternative and western treatments? 9. What are the latest treatments being developed, and who is carrying out clinical trials of these new treatments?

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Non Melanoma Skin Cancers

Non-melanoma skin cancers (SCC and BCC) are the most frequently diagnosed (Table 12.1) and are the most rapidly rising forms of cancer in white populations (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1992). Estimates are that in recent years in the U.S., there have been 800,000 cases diagnosed each year, about twice as often in men as in women (Long et al., 1996 Saraiya et al., 2004). In 2004 there were an estimated 2,300 deaths from non-melanoma skin cancers, primarily from SCC (Saraiya et al., 2004). However, the cancer characterized as the most common world-wide is BCC (Chuang et al., 1990 Gailani et al., 1996). Both BCC and SCC are concentrated on the skin surfaces that are most exposed to the sun (Weinstock, 1993). The estimated lifetime risk of BCC in the white population of the U.S. is 33 to 39 for men and 23 to 28 for women (Bader, 2008). BCC is rarely found in people under 40. Like SCC, BCC skin cancer incidence is a function of average UV-B irradiance in a geographic area,...

Skin cancer

Many epidemiological studies have implicated solar radiation as a cause of skin cancer (both melanotic and non-melanotic) in fair-skinned humans (146,147). Non-melanotic skin cancers are of two major histological types basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The risk of these cancers has generally been thought to correlate with cumulative lifetime exposure to solar radiation. Nevertheless, recent evidence suggests that the relationship is more complex. At least for basal cell carcinoma, childhood exposure may be important (148-150). These types of cancer usually develop on the Uveal melanoma Harmful Limited Effects on the skin Malignant melanoma Non-melanocytic skin cancer Sunburn Malignant melanoma, a cancer of the pigment-producing cells of the skin, usually develops on an already pigmented patch such as a mole (153-155). The relationship between melanoma skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is complex. Overall, 60-90 of melanoma cases in fair-skinned populations are...

Skin Cancers

It is believed that exposure to UV leads to skin cancers because the UV forms DNA photolesions that induce gene mutations (Pfeifer, 1997). Cutaneous melanoma (CM) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) seem to be associated with intense intermittent The importance of urban environmental design and configurations in influencing skin cancers depends on the epidemiology of these diseases. Gathering epidemiological data on non-melanoma skin cancers is difficult, in part because these diseases are not always included in cancer reporting registries (Weinstock, 1993). One indication of the importance of sun as a causative agent is indicated by the fact that incidence rates of all three skin cancers generally increase with decreasing latitude and with average cumulated UV-B irradiance, particularly for BCC (Leffell and Brash, 1996). Incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in the southern U.S. is about double that in the north (Weinstock, 1993).


Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CM) is much more life threatening than BCC or SCC. The CM rate increased in the U.S. from 6.8 100,000 in 1973 to 17.4 100,000 in 1999 (Saraiya et al., 2004), and to an average of 19.4 100,000 from 2001 to 2005 (National Cancer Institute, It has been noted for many years that melanoma rates tend to be higher at lower latitudes, following the trend toward a higher incidence of solar radiation with decreasing latitude (Whiteman and Green, 1999). It has been estimated that 65 to 90 of melanoma cases have been caused by exposure to the sun (Saraiya et al., 2004) with a higher estimated percentage of 95 occurring in Australia (Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society et al., 2005). One of the remarkable recent findings is that solar elastosis, a histologic indicator of cutaneous sun damage, has been positively associated with melanoma survival (Berwick et al., 2005), suggesting that people with melanoma who have had the most sun exposure have higher...

Climatology of UV Radiation 1979 2000 65S65N

Abstract Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching earth's surface is of interest because of its role in the induction of various biological and chemical processes, including skin cancer. We present climatological distributions of monthly mean surface-level UV radiation, calculated using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model with inputs of ozone column amounts and cloud reflectivities (at 380 nm) measured by satellite instruments (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS), aboard Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, and Earth Probe). The climatology is averaged over the years 1979 - 2000 for UV-A (315 nm - 400 nm), UV-B (280 nm - 315 nm), and radiation weighted by the action spectra for the induction of erythema (skin-reddening), pre-vitamin D3 synthesis, and non-melanoma carcinogenesis. Coverage is global, excluding the poles.

Historical Perspective Benzo[apyrene the Classic Chemical Carcinogen

In the latter part of the nineteenth century, workers in the paraffin refining, shale oil, and coal tar industries had high incidences of skin cancer. A possible cause emerged during the period 1915-1918 when Japanese scientists discovered that painting the ears of rabbits and mice with coal tar extracts produced tumors, some of which were malignant (Yamagiwa and fchikawa, 1918).

Urban Forest Influences on Exposure to UV Radiation and Potential Consequences for Human Health

Abstract This chapter explores the literature on ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in urban ecosystems with respect to the likely effects on human health. The focus was the question of whether the health effects of UV radiation should be included in the planning of landscape elements such as trees and shading structures, especially for high use pedestrian areas and school play grounds. Ultraviolet radiation can have a strong effect on humans, primarily as a cause or contributing factor for skin cancer and eye cataracts. It is also a probable factor in the development of immune deficiencies. However, UV can also positively affect human health, primarily because it is essential for photosynthesis of vitamin D in human skin. Vitamin D has long been recognized as a requirement for bone health. Recent epidemiological findings attribute vitamin D for the reduction of many types of non-skin cancers. Moreover, there is evidence that it may reduce mortality for those diagnosed with melanoma skin...

Effects of Solar UV on Human Health and Epidemiology

Human diseases that are linked to UV radiation as either the causative agent or as a factor in susceptibility to disease include several types of skin cancer, eye disease, and damage to the immune system. In addition, it is the UV, primarily UV-B, which is responsible for sunburn and skin aging and wrinkling (Weary, 1996). Sunburn itself is a health issue, but more importantly, some cancers are believed to be related to numerous sunburn episodes.

Apparent Anti Cancer Benefits of UV

Among the vast array of literature recently published on the possible benefits of UV exposure for preventing or reducing the progression of a multitude of cancers are two reviews of special note written by Giovannucci (2005) and Grant and Holick (2005) on the effects of vitamin D, and a report stating that greater exposure actually increases survival among melanoma victims (Berwick et al., 2005 Egan et al., 2005). It has been observed that malignant melanoma is often accompanied by low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (the active form of vitamin D) serum levels (Egan et al., 2005). A study by Smedby et al. (2005) found reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in individuals with high exposure to sun.

Public Health Information

Over the past several years, medical science seems to be developing a trend toward greater valuation of the benefits of UV-B in vitamin D production, and the value of UV radiation for vitamin D regulation has moderated the prevailing philosophy of major public health agencies around the world that reducing sun exposure as much as possible should be the public health goal. For example, in 2004 the internet site for the Cancer Council of Australia (2004) stated Deliberate exposure to sunlight does not provide any health benefits. Australians receive more than sufficient sunlight for vitamin D production from just sitting near a window or by as little as two minutes outside during the day. Because transmission of UV-B through glass is negligible (Turnbull et al., 2005), sitting near a window is probably not a significant source of vitamin D, and the two-minute exposure is generally shorter than needed for vitamin D synthesis (Webb and Engelsen, 2005). In March 2005, many health agencies...

Radiation Ultraviolet

Exposure to UV radiation also has a range of negative health effects. The most widely publicized of these is the link between exposure to UV and skin cancer. UV radiation is strongly absorbed by DNA, the cellular molecule responsibly for the transfer of hereditary information. The absorption of UV radiation causes chemical bonds in the DNA to be broken and reformed in the wrong order. This can lead to mutations and cancerous growths. UV radiation is also harmful to the eyes, leading to short-term uncomfortable conditions such as arc eye or to more serious conditions such as cataracts. There may also be a link between excessive UV exposure and poor immune response. UV radiation also finds a range of industrial and domestic applications these include

Scattering ultraviolet and infrared

(or actually deleterious, in the case of the shorter wavelength ultraviolet) for bio-spheric purposes, and thus portions of these spectra may be attractive candidates for being scattered back into space by an engineered scattering system (which can be designed to have considerable spectral selectivity). For example, the use of Rayleigh scattering to preferentially scatter back into space an appropriate fraction of the deeper ultraviolet portion of insolation appears to be a relatively appealing approach, since a usefully large portion of total insolation is available for attenuation and this solar spectral band's radiation appears to be net damaging to the biosphere single photons of UV-B and UV-C insolation are deleterious to both plants and animals, primarily due to photodamage of their DNA. Indeed, the World Health Organization estimates approximately 60 000 human deaths occur annually due to sunlight-engendered skin cancer, which is generally believed to be due rather exclusively...

Synopsis of the issue

It is anticipated that climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion will have a range of health impacts. Some will result from direct effects (e.g. heatwave-related deaths and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation) others will result from disturbances to complex physical and ecological processes (e.g. changes in patterns of infectious disease, drinking-water supplies and agricultural yields). Some health effects may become evident within the coming decade others would take longer. Furthermore, failure to reduce fossil fuel combustion (as the principal means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions) will result directly in a continuing (and increasing) avoidable burden of mortality and disease from exposure to local air pollution.

Disinfection Using Ultraviolet Light

The low-pressure mercury arc lamp is the principal means of producing ultraviolet light. This is used because about 85 of the light output is monochromatic at a wavelength of 253.7 nm which is within the optimum range for germicidal effect. It should be noted, however, that the optimum range for germicidal effect is also within the UV-B ultraviolet radiation. UV-B is less than or equal to 320 nm and is the dangerous range for causing skin cancer. Thus, it is important that workers be not unduly exposed to this radiation.

Dosimetry UV Modeling and Instruments

Bmw 2002 Body

Figure 4.19 Effective spectral irradiance comparisons between the WL4UV model (lines) and Brewer data (dots) for (from top to bottom) Erythema, DNA, and no melanoma. Data carried out in Rome Italy, May 2, 1996 at SZA 27.30 .Source Anav et al., 2004 Figure 4.19 Effective spectral irradiance comparisons between the WL4UV model (lines) and Brewer data (dots) for (from top to bottom) Erythema, DNA, and no melanoma. Data carried out in Rome Italy, May 2, 1996 at SZA 27.30 .Source Anav et al., 2004

The US National Cancer Institutes plant screening program

The third screening program, initiated in 1986, remains compound oriented, but emphasizes the search for compounds that can demonstrate selective cytotoxicity. Thus, the current program is disease-oriented because extracts are screened for activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines grown in vitro. Sixty different cancer cell lines, mostly human, are represented in the panel. The cell lines are divided among the following cancer types lung, breast, colon, melanoma, renal, central nervous system, leukemia and ovarian (Suffness, 1992). Most recently, NCI has included AIDS in its research agenda by adding an anti-HIV screen to its stable of screening methodologies.

Impact of Solar UV on Human Health

Vein Oscillation The Eye

Prolonged human exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, in the eyes, and on the immune system. Sunburn (erythema) is the best-known acute effect of excessive UV radiation exposure (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005). Over the longer term, UV radiation induces degenerative changes in skin cells, fibrous tissue, and blood vessels leading to premature skin aging, photodermatoses, and actinic keratoses. Another long-term effect is an inflammatory reaction of the eye. In the most serious cases, skin cancer and cataracts can occur (De Gruijl et al., 2003). The relationship between the exposure to UV radiation and the level of disease is shown in Figs. 4.14 and 4.15. Vitamin D insufficiency Skin cancers, eye disease Vitamin D insufficiency Skin cancers, eye disease Figure 4.15 Increase in skin cancer incidence in northwestern Europe with and without ozone-climate interaction Figure 4.15 Increase in skin cancer incidence in northwestern Europe...

What Is Cfc And Ci Ozone Layer

Are almost all absorbed by the ozone layer. They are harmful and cause various types of skin cancer. OF SKIN CANCER IS ATTRIBUTED TO UV-B RADIATION. Skin cancer. Damage to vision. Weakening of the immune system. Severe burns. Skin aging. Skin cancer. Damage to vision. Weakening of the immune system. Severe burns. Skin aging.


By using satellite ozone and reflectivity measurements as input to a column radiative transfer model, we have derived near-global climatologies of UV radiation at earth's surface, weighted for UV-A, UV-B, human erythema induction, pre-vitamin D3 synthesis, and non-melanoma carcinogenesis. These climatologies are potentially of direct utility to epidemiological studies of the effects of UV exposure, especially if geographical gradients are of interest. For example, the induction of non-melanoma skin cancers is thought to be associated with long-term cumulative exposure to UV radiation, while melanoma mutational subtypes are associated with UV radiation exposure at different life stages (e.g., Thomas et al., 2007). The weighted UV distributions described in this chapter are available for free download from the NCAR Community Data Portal (http To find the datasets, navigate the browse menu through the directory structure ACD > ACD Models > TUV > Erythemal UV. A...

Executive summary

Climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion are anticipated to have a range of health effects. Some will be direct effects, such as deaths related to heat waves and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation. Others will result from disturbances to complex physical and ecological processes, such as changes in patterns of infectious disease, drinking-water supplies and agricultural yields. Some health effects may become evident by 2010 others would take longer. Further, failure to reduce fossil fuel combustion, as the principal means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, will result directly in a continuing (and increasing) avoidable burden of mortality and disease from exposure to local air pollution.

Based Measurements

The sun gives off ultraviolet (UV) radiation that may be divided into three categories based on the wavelength ultraviolet-A (UV-A, from 320 nm to 400 nm), ultraviolet-B (UV-B, from 290 nm to 320 nm), and ultraviolet-C (UV-C, from 100 nm to 290 nm). It is known that sunlight can impact the skin, causing premature skin aging, skin cancer, and a host of skin changes (Dharmarajan, 2008). Exposure to UV light, such as UV-A or UV-B, from sunlight accounts for 90 of the symptoms of premature skin aging (Dharmarajan, 2008). Ultraviolet light, UV-B in particular, also has the potential to harmfully impact vegetation and livestock. This is especially true at lower latitudes (30.8 S - 30.8 N) during the summer, where the amount of noontime UV radiation is the largest because of smaller solar zenith angles (SZAs). Due to the negative effects of ultraviolet light on humans, livestock, agricultural crops, and forest health, it is critical to be able to assess levels of UV radiation and to estimate...

Ozone depletion

The amount of ultraviolet radiation that may reach a given part of the earth's surface at any time is determined by a great variety of factors, including latitude, season, time of day, altitude, local atmospheric conditions (smog, cloudiness, haze, smoke, dust, fog, altitude and aerosol particles), variation in the thickness of the ozone layer and the angle of the sun above the horizon. Ultraviolet radiation may damage the skin and the eyes and influence the immune system (Table 5). The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin can be acute or chronic. The acute effects are erythema and sunburn, and the chronic effects can be freckles, solar lentigines, melanocytic nevi, solar keratosis, photo-aging and cancer (145). We report here only skin cancer and the effects on the eyes and immune system.

On human health

The detection and attribution of the early effects of climate change on the health of human populations is a priority. A range of anticipated health effects from climate change and depletion of stratospheric ozone have been described. Some of the direct-acting effects are likely to become evident within the coming decades. For example, an increase in heat wave-related deaths and an increase in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cancer in some populations may occur soon or are already occurring.

Weaker and Weaker

Artificial substances are destroying the ozone layer, which provides protection against ultraviolet rays. This phenomenon is observed every year in polar regions (primarily in the Antarctic) between August and October. Because of this, the Earth is receiving more harmful rays, which perhaps explains the appearance of certain illnesses an increase in skin cancer cases, damage to vision, and weakening of the immune system.

Nov Dec 1994

Because of the strong absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation starting at 320 nm by 03, one of the major impacts of decreased stratospheric ozone is expected to be increased UV at the earth's surface, with associated effects such as increases in skin cancer and cataracts and damage to plants and other ecosystem components. It has therefore been of great interest to determine whether such a relationship can be detected and, if so, what the magnitude of the effect is. The latter is commonly expressed as an amplification factor (AF) or radiation amplification factor (RAF), defined as the fractional change in radiation (R) per fractional change in total column ozone (03)


Sunlight and the danger of skin cancer Every living thing exists because of the light from the sun. Sunlight is important in photosynthesis. For humans, UV light in small amounts is beneficial because it helps the body produce vitamin D from the UV region of sunlight. However, excessive exposure to sunlight is dangerous, as it can cause sunburns, skin cancer, and aging. UV light wavelengths are short enough to break the chemical bonds in skin tissue, and when the skin is exposed to sunlight, most skin will either burn or tan. The skin undergoes certain changes when exposed to UV light to protect itself against damage. The epidermis thickens, blocking UV light, and the melanocytes make increased amounts of melanin, which darkens the skin, resulting in a tan. Melanin absorbs the energy of UV light and prevents the light from penetrating deeper into the tissues. Sensitivity to sunlight varies according to the amount of melanin in the skin. Darker-skinned people have more melanin and...