Meditation Mastery Secrets
Resistance to the depredations of the global treadmill must be based on the repudiation of the process of commodification of living beings and the environment. A respectful coexistence of diverse life forms - human and otherwise - must be pursued on the basis of relinquishing the myth of the rational subordination of nature as well as its related dogma of self-interested accumulation, both of which arose during the Enlightenment. Resistance to the global treadmill of production has come mainly from social movements representing the underprivileged and marginalized. As the late German Green Party leader Petra Kelly emphasized, ecological concerns are always tied to issues of economic justice - the exploitation of the poor by the rich.53
Underpinning the evolving capitalist system one finds scientific and technological assumptions about the world that encourage the exploitation of nature. The Enlightenment period saw nature as a dead and mechanical world, a view that permits people to think of ecosystems and their inhabitants as mere resources for human use. Scientists like Francis Bacon and Sir Isaac Newton and philosophers like Ren Descartes, John Locke, and David Hume supported a scientific method according to which living ecosystems become objects of detached analysis, observation, and experimentation.
Some Neo-Buddhist and Neo-Hindu communities in the West, such as the Green Gulch Farm and the Spirit Rock Meditation Centre in California, or ISKCON, present in many countries, also have a decidedly ecological agenda they practice organic farming, take care to recycle as much as possible, and make reduction of consumption part of their religious routine.
Hobsbawm argues, we have adapted to living in a society, that is by standards of our grandparents 'uncivilized.' We have gotten used to it inhuman conditions . He refers to the resurgence of torture, legitimated against the background of the lunacies of the Cold War, of the accelerated descent into darkness in the late modern period and a reversal of the progress of civility that took place from the eighteenth century until the early twentieth century, achieved overwhelmingly or entirely due to the influence of the Enlightenment. See Eric J. Hobsbawm, Barbarism A User's Guide, New Left Review 206 (July August) (1994), pp. 44-54.
Researchers and other intellectuals, including artists, began to recognize the local impacts of environmental degradation around the turn of the 19th century in the United States and Europe. For scientists, powers of observation were based on empiricism and the scientific method that were honed during the Enlightenment. Artists and intellectuals observed natural beauty and captured it in the painting, music, and literature of the Romantic period. Romanticism emerged along with the Industrial Revolution, which was a practical expression of technical knowledge garnered during the Enlightenment.
In contrast to this, traditional Asian religions saw the embodiment of the highest human ideal in the sage the person who had gained a state of tranquil self-contentment. Enlightenment and wisdom went hand in hand with the restriction of wants and desires. Empathy with everything and everybody and sensitivity toward nature as well as toward fellow-humans were highly valued. Virtually all Asian traditions accept rebirth as a universal fact of life Humans do not occupy a unique position and their fate, both present and future, depends on their rela
Ye (2002) defines a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for maneuver and to pursue change through changing social conditions. He lists the critical factors contributing to the process of various farmer initiatives in China as including trust, social networks, information derived from networks, past experiences, media and publications, calculations of cost-effectiveness, enlightenment from interaction with and influence of family members and the network of outsiders, information from the market, visits to successful cases, self-help and cooperation, reputation (respect, credibility), interests, beliefs, curiosity vis- -vis the outside world, technology innovation, knowledge from publications and training, study visits, skills and technical capability, enlightenment from observation and favorable policies. Many of these are...
Climate observations were performed during the classical epoch. However, instrumental measurements started only in the 17th century with the advent of the Enlightenment. The longest continuous temperature time series is the Central England temperature, which reaches back to 1659. Early meteorological measurements were disseminated through scientific journals and private correspondence, and were studied by the scientists of the Enlightenment.
I have found something remarkable upon which a natural philosopher should meditate. On the 18th June. 1606, in latitude 45 at a distance of six times twenty leagues east of the Newfoundland Banks, we found ourselves in the midst of very warm water despite the fact that the air was cold. But on the 21st of June all of a sudden we were in so cold a fog that it seemed like January and the sea was extremely cold too.'
Services natural beauty and pleasure and sustaining human lives is a message that requires constant attention and
Given all this enlightenment, commitment, and effort, it is sobering to reflect, nearly 20 years later, on the continued deterioration of the situation. Despite impassioned pleas and elaborate strategies for conserving rain forests, the rate of loss has hardly abated. Brazil, which holds 62 of all Amazonian rain forest, lost on average 18,100 km2 yr between 1988 and 2006 but registered a loss of 27,400 km2 yr in 2004. Brazilian deforestation rates decreased by 2006 to 14,000 km2 yr, but this trend could be temporary, because falling prices of soya and the increased strength of Brazilian currency and government intervention contributed to the decrease (Malhi et al., 2008). Africa, with a significantly smaller amount of forest cover, lost an amount of forest comparable to that for South America for the same time period (Mygatt, 2006). Other regions of the world, notably Southeast Asia, are recording similarly serious losses (Sterling et al., 2006 United Nations Food and Agriculture...
Given the availability of clear modern analogues for ice-sheet beds on modern glacier forelands, the case for the megaflood interpretation is seriously weakened, because turbulent flows are shown to be unneccesary to explain streamlined subglacial landforms. Historical jokulhaups have occurred at Breidamerkurjokull, but these were associated exclusively with small ice-dammed lakes at the western and eastern margins. Almost all of the glacier foreland (which is extensively fluted) has been unaffected by jokulhlaups. If sheetfloods are unnecessary (indeed, impossible) as an explanation for streamlined subglacial landforms at Breidamerkurjokull, why must we invoke them to explain closely similar sediment-landform associations in, say, Alberta In the fourteenth century, William of Ockham wrote, 'pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate', which translates as 'entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily'. The principle that explanations of phenomena should not invoke any agencies not...
A relatively new effort aimed at eliciting public engagement, dubbed citizen science, involves public-professional partnerships that allow people of all ages an opportunity to participate in real scientific research and to interact with scientists in the process (Cohen, 1997 Brossard et al., 2005). Although the formulation of the idea has some novel aspects, it is rooted in the activities of amateur naturalists dating back in European culture to the 1700s (Sparks and Carey, 1995). The hope is that this kind of proactive participation not only will contribute new data on species and habitats but also will increase the participants' understanding of the process and results of the relevant science (Tuss, 1996 Brossard et al., 2005). Such enlightenment, it is further hoped, will strengthen participants' connections with both science and the environment in ways that cultivate a sense of stewardship.
Relatively rich farmer families contain often able villagers and villager leaders. According to classical work by Rogers (1983), able villagers are often the first level destination, namely information pioneers mid-income farmer families are the second level destination, namely early information receivers while low-income farmer families are the third level destination, namely late information receivers. Case studies demonstrate that farmer initiatives are processes of enlightenment , not only inspired by ideas, but more importantly, by engaging and learning from social interaction and everyday experience (Ye 2002).
The script used in early Scandinavian printing was the so-called Gothic script. In Sweden, however, Roman characters were in use by the 18th century. They appeared somewhat later in Iceland, and only by 1900 in Denmark and Norway, where the Gothic and Roman scripts existed side by side for quite some time. Despite the appearance of both scripts, the Roman characters retained an elite position while the Gothic was reserved for texts read by common people, mostly religious texts, although later supplemented by educational, vocational, and other literature in the wake of the Enlightenment in the 18th century. The Gothic and Roman scripts are, however, structurally identical only the shape of the characters differs.
The previous example provides more information about Buddhist sensibilities than any quote can. Each of the many ways of thinking within Buddhism has a very different understanding of reality and therefore each weighs the environmental problem differently. Many know of reincarnation as a Bodhisattva, one who remains on the last step before entering Nirvana out of compassion for creatures and denies himself entry to pave the way for others to reach enlightenment by teaching Buddhism. From there comes the belief the necessity to bring all of creation with us to enlightenment, to be able to not leave them to their fate , or Grass, trees, earth - everything becomes Buddha (Klocker and Tworuschka, 1986). Respect is not only for nature in general, but for every individual life-form. An Indian doctrine (Ahimsa), not limited to Buddhism but also found in Hinduism (i.e., Mahatma Gandhi), prohibits any harm or killing of life. The parallel to Indian Jainism, which also arose at the same time as...
J. W. et al. 2005 Synthesis of iron fertilization experiments from the iron age in the age of enlightenment. J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09S16. (doi 10.1029 2004JC002601) Ducklow, H. W. & Harris, R. P. (eds.) 1993 JGOFS The North Atlantic Bloom
The Hawaiians' view of the 'alala began with their creation story, as told in the Kumulipo, or Beginning in Deep Darkness. Here, Earth was not made by a creator but spontaneously arose from nothingness. Earth was then swept by a chaotic whirlwind of god-inspired life plants and animals of sea and land a world where every leaf expressed the face of the divine, every wind spoke the voice of spirits, and every forest fragrance breathed the supernatural. In this world there were no natural occurrences, only supernatural ones the rainbow, the wind, a sudden call or flight of birds, unexpected ocean waves, cloud formations, the behavior of animals. What was not divine was an earthly sign. Noisy flocks of 'alala screaming down from the uplands of the gods and across the lowland villages warned that lava from Mauna Loa was on its way, and ancient Hawaiians knew that when the wiliwili bloomed along the coast, sharks would bite.
Yet, within the seemingly quiescent Holocene, intense droughts catalyzed the demise of highly organized human societies (Akkadian Empire, Tiwanaku and Classic Mayan civilizations), often in a matter of a few years deMenocal, 2001 Haug et al., 2003 . It is the Trade winds and their northeasterly direction that pushed Columbus to the Caribbean to find Indians . The people of Japan partly owe the idiosyncrasy of their culture and language to a Mongol invasion reduced to nothingness by a tropical cyclone in 1281, thereafter named typhoon, or divine wind Emanuel, 2005 . Closer to us, former commerce secretary William Daley estimates that at least 1 trillion of the U.S. economy is weather-sensitive *. Still, it would be excessive to claim that weather and climate are the sole determinants of human history and economics - to quote Gordon Manley, the fall of Rome should not be attributed to a joggle of the
RELIGIon is A universal and varied phenomenon. While there have been those who have rejected all religion and espouse atheism, they have been for practical purposes a very small minority until recently. The attempts since the Enlightenment in Western Europe in the 1700s to foster a belief in atheism has met with little success, except among educated elites in the more advanced industrialized countries. During the time of Communist domination in the Soviet Union or in Communist China, as well as other Communist countries, the attempts to suppress religion have almost completely failed.
The third critical step in the etiology of ecocide was the rise of modernity, characterized by three related features the increasing division of labor, the capitalist mode of production, and the emergence of the modern nation-state. Individual enterprise and commercial competition were promoted as the beneficial engines of progress and enlightenment.41 Ideologically, this vision drew from Judeo-Christian interpretations of God giving the land to the industrious and rational in order to improve humanity. The free market was exalted as the natural and most efficient vehicle for the coordination of complex societies. The rational-legal nation-state was celebrated as the final form of political organization.42 The exploitation of nature was universalized and commodified. In the end, the imperatives of late modernity produced the global framework in which ecocidal tendencies greatly accelerated. The loss of biodiversity is particularly felt in the global South.
In the 4th century BC, the Greek philosopher Theophrastus believed that the number of spots he counted on the Sun's surface could explain the changing rainfall. During the Age of Enlightenment in the 18 th century, gentlemen scholars noticed that many Classical writers described a climate different from their own day Edward Gibbon, for instance, noted in his 1776 weighty tome The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that the 3rd century AD must have been cooler, citing the frequently frozen Rhine and Danube rivers in support of his idea. After this, things really gathered pace. By the mid-19th century it was realized that ice ages had been common in our planet's past. The nice cosy image of a stable world disappeared forever.
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