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Nassau grouper (Epinephalus striatus), 21 National Center for Biotechology

Information, 143 National Moth Night, 322 National Research Council, 6, 17 National Science Foundation, 345 Natural Capital Project, 340 Nature Conservancy, 290, 340 Nauru Island, 105, 106 Nematodes, 3, 64, 68, 69, 72 Neogene, 210, 223 Neutral biodiversity theory, 83, 107, 110-112 New Guinea, 42, 47, 50 New World species, 31, 256, 270 New York University, vii New Zealand, 33, 86, 91, 98, 102, 105, 106, 174, 322

Niche construction, 179, 186, 219 Niche incumbency models, 217-218 Niger, 341

146, 150, 332 Norfolk Island, 95, 105, 106 North Africa, 200 North America amphibian diversity, 32 bloom taxa, 200 clade disjunctions, 258 extinctions, 30, 198, 200, 230, 233, 234, 236, 239

national parks and preserves, 336 species diversity, 259 Western Interior Seaway, 198 North American Butterfly Association, 321

North Atlantic, 9, 12, 234, 257 North Sea, 9, 14 North Temperate Zone, 31, 273 Northern Hemisphere, dispersion of plant lineages, 247, 254, 257, 258-259 Northern Line Islands, 105, 106 Northern right whale, 7-8 Novacek, Michael, 244-245, 297-315

Oaks (Quercus), 182, 253 Ocean. See also Marine ecosystems; specific bodies and locations sea level changes, 184-185 Odontodactylidae, 49 Old World species, 32, 256, 270 Oligocene, 256, 287 Onycophorans, 174 Opalinata, 66 Open ocean pelagic realm climate change and, 17-18, 23 exploitation, 9, 10, 11, 16-17, 23 status, 23

vertical mixing, 17, 23, 24 Operation Migration, 324-325 Ordovician, 210, 212, 220. See also Mass extinctions Origination/extinction dynamics. See also Extinction; Spatial dynamics of extinctions; Speciation Big Five mass extinctions, 168, 208, 212214, 215 bloom taxa, 200

body size and, 45, 46, 49-50, 51, 54, 56, 59, 60-61, 168, 192, 194, 195, 196, 265, 271, 272, 273 causal model, 217-218 competition, 211, 218, 222 continuous time rates, 210 density dependence, 208, 215-217, 221, 222

and endemism, 51, 58, 60-61, 83, 91, 124 equilibrial models, 208-209, 215-221, 222 geographic range size and, 58-60, 75, 76,

77, 192, 333 invasive species and, 85-86, 87, 88, 89,

90, 91-93, 94, 97, 98, 99-100, 101, 103 latitudinal distribution and, 58, 201-203 life history speciation/extinction hypothesis, 51 marine invertebrates, 207-225 methods, 223-224

niche incumbency models, 217-218 niche reconstruction hypothesis, 219 percolation models, 217 periodicity hypothesis, 207, 208, 214, 215

Phanerozoic decline in rates, 207, 208, 210-212 previous models, 218-219

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