Index

Self-organized criticality model, 207, 215, 218

Sequoia National Park, 35

Shapiro, Arthur, 322

Shellfish, 8, 23, 326. See also Bivalve mollusks; Crustaceans Shrimp, 13, 15, 25, 45, 47. See also Reef stomatopods Siberia, 229 Siberian Traps, 29 Sierra de Mazateca, 40 Sierra Madre Oriental, 40, 41 Sierra Nevada of California, 27-28, 33, 35,

37, 38, 30, 40, 41 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae), 33, 35, 36-37 Signor-Lipps effect, 223 Silurian, 212. See also Mass extinctions Sipunculida, 66 Sirenia, 9

Snails, 47, 73, 80, 81, 197, 295 Snow crabs, 13 Society Islands, 52 South Africa, 175, 180, 253, 309 South America amphibians, 37, 39 bird diversity, 252 clade disjunctions, 256 deforestation, 298

megafauna extinctions, 230, 232, 233, 234, 239 Southeast Asia, 46, 298 Southern yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa), 33, 35, 36-37 Spatial dynamics of extinctions. See also Elevational diversity gradients; Geographic range bivalve model, 191

climate and, 190, 201, 202, 204, 205, 337 complexity, 198-199 diversification debt, 189, 198, 199 hitchhiking effects, 189, 193, 196-197,

203-204, 205 incumbency effects, 174, 189, 196, 201, 203, 205

integrated paleontological-neontological approach, 189, 203-206 invasions, 93, 189-190, 191, 199-200, 201,

202-203, 204, 205 latitudinal gradients, 58, 191, 201-203 out-of-the-tropics model, 201-202, 204

recoveries, 168, 189, 190, 198, 199-200,

201-203, 204 regional events, 198, 199, 204 selectivity during mass extinctions, 168, 189, 190, 191-197, 203, 205 Speciation. See also Origination/extinction dynamics allopatric, 259

body size and, 45, 46, 49-50, 59, 60-61 geographic range and, 59, 75 and life history characteristics, 59 mass extinctions and, 199, 200, 204 phylogenetic niche conservatism and, 251

species diversity and, 51, 58, 60 stomatopod, 49-50, 51 temperature and, 49 time-for-speciation factor, 252 Species-area relationships, xvi, 88, 100, 113, 138, 330

Species diversity. See also Biodiversity; Speciation and endemism, 45, 46, 60, 61 extinction/speciation dynamics and, 51, 58-60

faunal carryover hypothesis, 48 hypothesis, 51

life history speciation/extinction hypothesis, 51 niche-based models, 86-87, 259 phylogenetic diversity and, 253 reef stomatopods, 2, 45, 47, 48, 49-55, 60 saturation point, 86-87 and survival of mass extinctions, 194, 195, 196

Species-energy relationships, 179 Sponges, 10, 21, 175, 179, 180, 184 Squamata, 174 Sri Lanka, 33

St. John's worts (Hypericaceae), 258 Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis), 18, 19, 21

Stanford University, 340 Starfish, 50

State University of New York at Stony

Brook, viii Stebbins, Ledyard, 249 Stingray (Dasyatis violacea), 17 Stomatopods. See Reef stomatopods Stromatoporoids, 180, 184 Stripe-eyed hoverfly (Eristalinus taeniops), 324

Swan Island Conservation Area, 14 Synergistic effects of anthropogenic activities climate change, 22, 24, 29, 30, 39, 124, 205, 333

habitat fragmentation and loss, 1, 5, 6, 12, 30, 44, 88, 124, 205, 260-261, 309, 333-334

infectious disease, 2, 39, 88, 101 invasive species, 1, 5, 30, 88, 276 in marine diversity losses, 1-2, 5, 6, 12, 21-22, 26 pollution, 6, 22, 26, 28, 88, 309 Systematics network of life model, 284-285, 288-289 temporal banding strategy, 286-288 tree of life model, 244, 284, 285, 286-288, 292

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