Index

and extinction selectivity, 189 Guadalupian, 184

impacts, see Evolutionary impacts of extinctions Late Devonian, 28-29, 167, 180, 183-184,

186, 187, 212, 213, 214, 215 losses, 192-194 metabolic activity and, 178 number of events, 28 Ordovician-Silurian boundary, 28, 167, 173, 183, 184, 197, 199, 213, 214, 215, 221

origination/ extinction dynamics, 168, 208, 212-214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219220, 221

overkill hypothesis, 30, 168, 233, 300 Pleistocene, 30, 198, 201, 202, 221, 271; see also Quaternary Megafauna Extinction recovery, 171-172, 178, 185-186, 221, 279 regional pulses, 198, 199, 204 selectivity during, 189, 190, 191-197, 203, 205

survivorship, 2, 28-29, 30, 42-43, 175, 189, 190-191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 199200, 203-204, 214 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 303 Mastigophora, 66 May, Robert, 64-65, 79, 82 Mediterranean basin, 250, 254 MEL (multiple element limitation) model, 151

Melastomataceae, 258 Mendel, Gregor, 282 Mesozoa, 66 Mesozoic, 40, 212 Metabolic scaling theory, 178 Methane, 158

Mexico, 32, 40, 41, 70, 321, 325 Microbial community composition bioreactor models, 158 black box ecosystem models, 84, 150, 151-154

C amendment and, 154, 155, 157, 165 CO2 enrichment and, 154, 155, 157, 165 defined, 152

direct manipulation, 159 and ecosystem processes, 157, 158, 159-164

functional redundancy, 84, 149, 152, 153, 154, 157-158, 165

horizontal gene transfer and, 153, 156, 284

incorporating microbes into ecosystem process models, 149, 159-164 metagenomic or metatranscriptomic approaches, 164 mineral fertilization and, 154, 155, 157, 165

phospholipids fatty acid analysis, 155, 159

phylogenetic relationships, 84, 161-164, 165

physiological response of taxa, 159-164, 165

portfolio effect, 164 potential impacts of disturbance on, 153-154

resilience to change, 84, 149, 152-153,

154, 156-157, 165 resistance to disturbance, 84, 149, 152,

153, 154-156, 165 temperatures and, 154, 155, 157, 165 transplant experiments, 158 Microbial pollution, 12, 15 Microorganisms. See also Bacterial; Microbial diversity, 150

climate change and, 128, 150 ecosystem services, 150, 151 reef ecosystems, 179-180 Middle America, amphibian extinctions, 39, 41

Middle Eastern coral reefs, 46 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 75, 76,

107, 264, 274, 334 Minute salamanders (Thorius spp.), 40-41 Miocene, 48, 201, 256, 257, 287 Mississippi-Missouri river system, 15 Molecular genetics. See also Biodiversity genetics evolution-development field, 283 marker applications, 294 Mollusca, 66, 192, 194, 198, 199, 200. See also

Bivalve mollusks Monk seal, 21

Montane ecosystems. See Elevational diversity gradients; Tropical montane species beta-diversity, 130-131 climate change and, 134 Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, 37, 38, 39

Morlon, Hélène, 127-147 Morphologic diversity, 171, 176-177, 181,

183-184, 185, 186, 197, 251, 267 Mussels, 9, 191, 194, 305

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