Endemism And Hotspots

Endemism has been of particular interest as an indicator of extinction. The concept of biodiversity hotspots concentrations of endemic species that are at exceptional risk was motivated by the need to establish conservation priorities (Myers, 1988 Reid, 1998 Myers et al., 2000 Mittermeier et al., 2004). However, some authors have argued that high overall diversity or phylogenetically unique taxa or habitats deserve priority attention, and others have shown that centers of endemism do not always...

Extinction Influences Spatial Dynamics Across Latitude

Extinctions apparently promote not only invasion but evolutionary diversification in the fossil record, the classic case being the impressive radiation of mammals after the demise of the (nonavian) dinosaurs and other marine and terrestrial vertebrates at the end of the Cretaceous e.g., Alroy (1999, 2000) and Cifelli and Gordon (2007) for general discussions, see Erwin (2001) and Jablonski (2001, 2005, 2008) . These macroevolu-tionary observations are often seen as two sides of the same coin,...

Prospects For The Future

Armed with evidence from the past and present about global patterns and processes of extinction, what can be projected for global biodiversity in the near and distant future Chapters in this section address several of the many challenges presented by the ongoing extinction crisis, both for the biodiversity sciences per se and for efforts to translate the science into an enhanced societal awareness that might spawn effective conservation policies and actions. Conventional wisdom has been that...

Anthony D Barnosky

Earth's most recent major extinction episode, the Quaternary Megafauna Extinction, claimed two-thirds of mammal genera and one-half of species that weighed > 44 kg between 50,000 and 3,000 years ago. Estimates of megafauna biomass (including humans as a megafauna species) for before, during, and after the extinction episode suggest that growth of human biomass largely matched the loss of non-human megafauna biomass until 12,000 years ago. Then, total megafauna biomass crashed, because many...

Recoveries Are Also Spatially Complex

Most research on spatial dynamics has focused on extinctions, but evidence is accumulating for a spatial component to recoveries as well. The raw evolutionary material that survives the mass extinction filter is crucial in shaping the postextinction world. However, the evolutionary novelties and the ecological restructuring that emerge in the postextinction interval, including the little-appreciated process of sorting survivors into winners and losers (Jablonski, 2002), may be as important as...

References

Wagner PJ, Kosnik MA, Lidgard S (2006) Abundance distributions imply elevated complexity of post-Paleozoic marine ecosystems. Science 314 1289-1292. Wake DB (2008) Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction A view from the world of amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(Suppl) 11466-11473. Wake DB, Papenfuss TJ, Lynch JF (1991) Distribution of salamanders along elevational transects in Mexico and Guatemala. Tulane Publ Zool Bot, Suppl Publ 1 303-319. Walker TD, Valentine JW (1984)...

Integrating Paleontological And Neontological Perspectives

I have touched on four spatial aspects of ancient extinctions that should be integrated with theoretical and applied approaches to the present-day biota. The fossil record amply demonstrates that the spatial fabric of extinction has profoundly shaped the biosphere. First, broad geographic range probably always buffers clades from extinction, but it becomes most important and clear-cut as the suite of other factors that enhance species and genus survival during normal times become ineffective....

Patterns of Biodiversity and Endemism on Indo West Pacific Coral Reefs

RODGERS,* and ALEXEI U. KUDLA+ Diversity of the primary groups of contemporary Indo-West Pacific coral reef organisms, including mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans), peaks in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), reaches a lower peak in East Africa and Madagascar Indian Ocean continental (IOC) , and declines in the central Indian Ocean (IO) and Central Pacific (CP). Percent endemism in stomatopods (highest in the IAA, high in the IOC, lower in regions adjacent...

Acknowledgments

Avise and F. J. Ayala for the invitation to contribute. E. J. Sterling, T. E. Lovejoy, G. Amato, M. A. O'Leary, L. J. Guggenheim, E. V. Futter, J. Cracraft, E. O. Wilson, and P. H. Raven shared insights and comments that influenced the development of this chapter. I thank J. C. Avise, J. B. C. Jackson, and an anonymous reviewer for constructive criticisms and comments. NOTE A 2008 Gallup Poll shows that more Americans than ever recognize that the effects of...

Snapshot Of Mammalian Biodiversity

Mammalian species are distributed very unevenly among genera, families, and orders (Purvis and Hector, 2000 Wilson and Reeder, 2005). Differences in age among taxa of a given rank (Avise, Chapter 15, this volume) confound evolutionary interpretation of the pattern, but the phy-logeny permits a test of whether the chances of diversification have indeed varied among lineages. Under the equal-rates Markov model (ERM), in which chances are equal, phylogenies should have a weighted mean I the degree...

Assignment Given the Network Model Reconsider the Nature of Evolutionary Processes

If the network model (e.g., Fig. 15.1b) proves to be more nearly correct for many taxonomic groups, then the challenges for systematics and evolutionary biology will be entirely different (McCarthy, 2008). First, phylogeneticists would have to admit that their dream of reconstructing a branched tree of life had been merely a pipedream, and they would have to accept the new and probably far more difficult challenge of working out the precise history of reticulation events for each organismal...

Bay of Fundy

New detailed studies of the Quoddy region of the Bay of Fundy (Lotze and Milewski, 2004) and the Wadden Sea (Lotze, 2005 Lotze et al., 2005) confirm and refine conclusions developed earlier based primarily on studies of Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound (Jackson, 2001 Jackson et al., 2001). The Bay of Fundy is particularly interesting because ecological degradation is so great despite comparatively good water quality compared with most other estuaries (Lotze, 2005 Lotze et al., 2006)....

Amphibians In Crisis

Amphibians have received much attention during the last two decades because of a now-general understanding that a larger proportion of amphibian species are at risk of extinction than those of any other taxon (SN Stuart et al., 2004). Why this should be has perplexed amphibian specialists. A large number of factors have been implicated, including most prominently habitat destruction and epidemics of infectious disease (Pechmann and Wake, 2006) global warming also has been invoked as a...

Conclusions

A very large and diverse public demonstrates a connection with nature and a sense of concern about environmental problems (Biodiversity Project, 2002). However, these attitudes often are not accompanied by real understanding of biodiversity or a sense of how to take more effective measures in protecting and sustaining natural habitats and species. Moreover, the public places much greater priority on other problems, such as terrorism, health, and the economy, than on biodiversity loss. People...

Appendix Naturalized Vascular Plant Species On Islands Over Time

Years listed below refer to the most recent survey or plant collection date and not to the date of publication of a manuscript, even though, in many cases, the collection and publication date are the same. Following each year, the number of naturalized species is indicated in parentheses. See Methods in the main text for a brief description of criteria used in tallying the number of naturalized species and Sax et al. (2002) for a thorough discussion of these criteria and data sources. Christmas...

Assignment Given the Tree Model Develop a Standardized Classification Scheme

The two basic functions of biological taxonomy are to (i) provide a universal system for information storage and retrieval, and (ii) encapsulate an evolutionary interpretation of biological diversity (Mayr, 1982). Unfortunately, current biological classifications are grossly nonstandard-ized because (i) the species in named taxa are typically united by some unspecified mix of similarity by resemblance and similarity by descent, and (ii) even when the nested taxonomic ranks in a Linnaean...

Architectural Diversity and Ecosystem Engineering

The framework of modern reefs is generated by scleractinian corals, with a significant contribution from coralline algae and early diagenetic cements. Architecturally similar structures, at least at a gross scale, have been built by microbial communities, sponges and archaeocyathids, tabulate and rugose corals, stomatoporoids, bryozoans, brachiopods, and rudist bivalves. Reefs are a specific example of the provisioning of architectural diversity, which can provide a positive feedback on...

Business As Usual Where Does Biodiversity Go From Here

There are 6.7 billion people in the world as we write this, a number that is projected to grow (according to a mid-range forecast) to 9.3 billion by 2050 (Population Reference Bureau, 2007). The continued growth of the human population displaces biodiversity directly, as land is developed to create living room. In one recent example, Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez aims to translocate 100,000 people into a brand new city in El Avila National Park to alleviate overcrowding in Caracas (Forero,...

Application To Past Biotic Crises

Applying some of these different aspects of diversity to past mass extinctions is difficult because of both lack of data and difficulties in establishing appropriate criteria and reproducible metrics, but identifying these different measures of diversity is the first step toward building a more robust and quantifiable approach. Table 9.1 provides a preliminary, somewhat impressionistic, application of these metrics for marine animals across the five classic mass extinction intervals. In the...

Background

Legions of biologists are currently gathering extensive molecular genetic data as part of a grand collective effort to reconstruct, once and for all, the history of life on Earth (Cracraft and Donoghue, 2004). Guiding this endeavor is the powerful conceptual metaphor of a phylogenetic tree, popularized by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Within the next decade or two, major branches and numerous twigs in the Tree of Life will be reconstructed (nearly as accurately as may ever become possible given the...

B

Back to Natives program, 326 Bacterial communities abiotic filtering, 133, 134, 156 ecosystem services, 150 elevational diversity gradients in soil communities, 127-147 Baltic Sea, 15 Baltica continental plate, 199 Barbados, coral reefs, 19 Barnosky, Anthony D., 168-169, 227-241 Barro Colorado Island, 115, 116, 117 Bartlett, Troy, 320-321 Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, 35-36, 38, 42, 44 Bats, 124, 265, 273 Bay of Fundy, 7-8, 11 Beach Bluffs Restoration Project, 327 Bees, 308, 324, 339 Beetles,...

Body Length mm

FIGURE 3.10 Mean egg size per individual increases significantly with body size among species of gonodactylid (open circles) and protosquillid (closed square) reef stomatopods (r2 0.12, F 9.45, P 0.003, y 0.002x + 0.71). restricted distributions in reef stomatopods. The latter indicates that most reef stomatopods risk extinction if faced with rapid global environmental changes. Life history patterns of stomatopods are consistent with those found in other living and fossil groups for...

Biomass of Domestic Stock

To obtain a maximum value for the biomass of domesticated megafauna, I calculated the present proportion of human biomass to domestic stock biomass as tabulated by Hern (1999). I then used that proportion to back-calculate the maximum biomass of domestic stock, given the estimated biomass of humans, going back to 10.5 kyr B.P., by which time pigs, goats, sheep, and cattle were first domesticated (Pedrosa et al., 2005 Beja-Pereira et al., 2006 Chen et al., 2006 Fernandez et al., 2006 Larson et...

Center of Accumulation Hypothesis

Species originate in small peripheral populations, larvae from peripheral regions are carried by currents into central areas favorable for reef growth (arrows in Fig. 3.2), and species accumulate in these current-fed FIGURE 3.2 Contours of species richness for reef stomatopods in the IWP. Numbers represent species present in each contour. Arrows indicate major currents. All species of Alainosquillidae, Gonodactylidae, Odontodactylidae, Protosquillidae, and Takuidae are included Pseudosquillidae...

Beyond The Declines The Evolutionary Future

The primary goal for most conservation management has been to maximize preservation of current diversity. However, by altering the environment, humans also influence future evolution (Smith and Bernatchez, 2008). A previous National Academy of Sciences Colloquium (Cowling and Pressey, 2001 Myers and Knoll, 2001) raised an important question Should conservation goals be extended to consider the evolutionary future A range of timescales might be considered. In the short term, species-recovery...

E

East Africa, coral reefs, 20, 45 Easter Island, 104, 106 Echinoderms, 66, 181, 184 Echinoids, 176-177, 184, 197 Echiurida, 66 Ecospace, 177-179, 184 Ecosystem process models black box, 150, 151-154 incorporating microbes, 149, 159-164 Ecosystem services, 64, 77-82, 123, 150, 151, 177, 307, 315, 339-340 Ecotourism, 336, 338-339, 343 Ecuador, iv, 39-40, 112, 113 Ehrlich, Paul R., 245, 329-344 El Avila National Park, 331 Elevational diversity gradients alpha-diversity, 130, 136, 146 analytical...

David Jablonski

The fossil record amply shows that the spatial fabric of extinction has profoundly shaped the biosphere this spatial dimension provides a powerful context for integration of paleontological and neontological approaches. Mass extinctions evidently alter extinction selectivity, with many factors losing effectiveness except for a positive relation between survivorship and geographic range at the clade level (confirmed in reanalyses of end-Cretaceous extinction data). This relation probably also...

Caveats

Methods used here are intended to give simply an order-of-magnitude indication of how biomass changed through time and identify times of major biomass crash and recovery. The calculations are necessarily coarse. Exact values change given different inputs to the estimations, but the sensitivity tests make it seem unlikely that the important trends are simply estimation artifacts. Additional refinements would be desirable but are beyond the scope of this initial work. Such refinements ideally...

Evaluating Colonizationbased Saturation

Colonization-based saturation will occur if the probability of adding new species to an area decreases over time as net richness increases at some point, as an area fills up, the probability of adding any additional species will become so low that an effective saturation point will be reached (Stachowicz and Tilman, 2005). In some ways, this is a special case of Elton's invasion hypothesis (Elton, 1958), which postulated that species-rich regions would be more difficult to invade than...

Comparative Analyses Of Mammalian Extinction Risk

Perhaps the most obvious proposed risk factor for extinction is large body size. The end-Pleistocene mass extinction of mammals removed mostly large species (Barnosky, Chapter 12, this volume), and declining mammals are an order of magnitude heavier, on average, than are non-threatened species (Cardillo et al., 2005). There are several possible reasons Large-bodied species are more tempting targets than small ones for hunters they are, on average, less abundant and they take longer to reach...

Ecological Extinction and Evolution in the Brave New Ocean

The great mass extinctions of the fossil record were a major creative force that provided entirely new kinds of opportunities for the subsequent explosive evolution and diversification of surviving clades. Today, the synergistic effects of human impacts are laying the groundwork for a comparably great Anthropocene mass extinction in the oceans with unknown ecological and evolutionary consequences. Synergistic effects of habitat destruction, overfishing, introduced species, warming,...

Exploitation

Longline fishing and trawling have removed 89 of the pristine abundance of prized large predatory fishes like cod, pollock, and haddock in the North Atlantic in the last 100 years, and cod have been depleted by 96 since 1852 (Table 1.1) (Christensen et al, 2003 Rosenberg et al, 2005). The effects on sharks have also been enormous (Table 1.1). Large sharks most commonly caught by pelagic longlines in the northwest Atlantic were reduced by 40-89 between 1986 and 2000 (Baum et al., 2003)....

Identifying Species

Collecting data on any group of organisms requires, of course, accurate identification, ideally to species or even subspecies. Traditional field guides and web-based identification guides are becoming sophisticated and accessible, but most of us tend to develop expertise in a specific group of organisms. Sharing this expertise is a great way to engage the public in more data collection. Arthropods (insects, spiders, crustaceans, millipedes, and centipedes) make up more than three-quarters of...

How Rapidly Are We Losing Hosts And Parasites

Estimates for the loss of biodiversity use a variety of methods to compare current rates of species extinction against background rates (May et al., 1995 Regan et al., 2001). All of these methods suggest that we are entering a period of mass extinction that is directly comparable to the mass extinctions recorded in the fossil record. Poulin and Morand (2004) used the proportion of threatened hosts in each major vertebrate taxon to estimate the potential threatened number of parasitic species....

How Many Parasite Species

Rohde (1982) provides an additional perspective on the ubiquity of parasitism as a lifestyle by estimating the numbers of parasitic species in each of the major taxa. A graphical representation of these data suggests that 40 of known species are parasitic, with parasitism ubiquitous in some taxa and either absent or rare in others (Fig. 4.2). FIGURE 4.2 Relative abundance of different taxa, and the proportion of parasitic species in those taxa data from Rohde (1982) . Taxa are numbered along...

How Many Tree Species Are There in the Amazon and How Many of Them Will Go Extinct

HUBBELL,*+ FANGLIANG HE,* RICHARD CONDIT,+ LUIS BORDA-DE- GUA,*ll JAMES KELLNER, and HANS TER STEEGE New roads, agricultural projects, logging, and mining are claiming an ever greater area of once-pristine Amazonian forest. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) forecasts the extinction of a large fraction of Amazonian tree species based on projected loss of forest cover over the next several decades. How accurate are these estimates of extinction rates We use neutral theory to...

How Many Parasite Species Per Host Species

In the best-studied taxa, an average mammalian host species appears to harbor two cestodes, two trematodes, and four nematodes, and an acanthocephalan is found in every fourth mammalian species examined. Each bird species harbors on average three cestodes, two trematodes, three nematodes, and one acanthocephalan (Poulin, 1999 Poulin and Morand, 2000, 2004). None of these estimates take possible unrecognized cryptic species into account, but, in general, helminths that parasitize avian species...

Homage to Linnaeus How Many Parasites How Many Hosts

LAFFERTY,+ ARMAND M. KURIS,* RYAN F. HECHINGER,* and WALTER JETZ Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are 6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are...

Index

Ammonoids, xv, 175, 176-177, 184, 185, 186, chytridiomycosis, 2, 35-37, 38, 42, 44 climate change and, 2, 30, 38-41, 42, 44 conservation, 35, 36, 42 current extinction spasm, 2, 28, 30, 37, 40, 42, 43-44, 331 diversity geographically, 31, 32, 34, 43, 266 habitat modification, 2, 30, 37, 40, 41, 42 invasive species and, 35, 42 new species, 40-41, 42, 43 number of recognized species, 31, 42, 68 parasites, 68, 72 pollution and, 30-31, 35, 332 Rana of Sierra Nevada, 33-37 survival of mass...

Is Global Warming A Real Extinction Threat

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reached consensus that climate change is happening and that it is largely related to human activities (Parry et al., 2007). Estimates of global warming during the next century vary, but generally fall in the range of 2 C to 4 C, whereas rises as high as 7 C are projected for much of the United States and Europe, with even higher temperatures expected in northern Eurasia, Canada, and Alaska (Parry et al., 2007). Such rises would have...

On Islands

GAINES* Predation by exotic species has caused the extinction of many native animal species on islands, whereas competition from exotic plants has caused few native plant extinctions. Exotic plant addition to islands is highly nonrandom, with an almost perfect 1 to 1 match between the number of naturalized and native plant species on oceanic islands. Here, we evaluate several alternative implications of these findings. Does the consistency of increase in plant richness...

Life History Patterns Of Reef Stomatopods

We propose that the ecological and environmental factors that govern body size and life history traits drive patterns of diversity and endemism in reef organisms. Large body size in reef stomatopods is significantly correlated with massive reproductive output (more and larger eggs Figs. 3.9 and 3.10), greater planktonic larval dispersal, larger geographic ranges, and greater saturation of available reef habitat within ranges (Fig. 3.11), whereas small body size correlates with restricted...

Into the Fabric of Local Communities

For various reasons, conservation programs in developing regions are likely to fail when they are imposed from the top down by outsiders foreigners (Chapin, 2004). That realization has spurred interest in (i) involving local communities in conservation planning and (ii) fostering their desire and capacity to help achieve conservation goals. In some ways, these can be seen as short- and long-term components of the same strategy. Earning local support for a conservation initiative is needed to...

Loss Of Avian Diversity Climate Change Versus Habitat Loss

We have used the geographic distribution database for birds described above to evaluate potential impacts of projected environmental change on each of the major continents (Jetz et al., 2007). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) used four quantitative scenarios to examine how land cover would change across the land surface of the Earth over the next 50 and 100 years (Alcamo et al., 2005 Carpenter et al., 2005). The scenarios were driven by quantitative climate models derived from the...

Modeling Future Declines

Predicting future declines is more complex than explaining present declines, because the future is not just a linear extrapolation from the past and present. Past extinctions were largely caused by invasive species and overexploitation habitat alteration is now a more important driver (Baillie et al., 2004). Changes in land use have been mapped historically (www.mnp.nl hyde) and are tracked in the present day (http glcf. umiacs.umd.edu data), but analogous spatial data for other main drivers...

Monitoring Migration

Although designed primarily for K-12 students, Journey North (http www.learner.org jnorth ) is another Internet-based data collection project, focused on migratory species in North America. Students and the public participate in tracking the migration patterns of monarch butterflies, robins, hummingbirds, whooping cranes, gray whales, bald eagles, and birds and mammals. Sightings are automatically added to databases, which can be observed as animated maps on line. For whooping cranes, students...

Into Human Modified Landscapes as Best It

Unbroken tracts of conserved wild area, if they exist, will always be the greatest reservoirs of biodiversity and the most interesting places to visit. But under certain conditions, human-dominated pastoral and agricultural landscapes can also harbor an appreciable amount of biodiversity (Western, 1989 Pimentel et al, 1992 Daily et al, 2001). Simple and inexpensive management techniques, such as maintaining living hedges around agricultural plots (Robinson and Sutherland, 2002) and preserving...

Prospects For The Future243

13 A Phylogenetic Perspective on the Distribution of 14 Phylogenetic Trees and the Future of Mammalian Biodiversity 263 T. Jonathan Davies, Susanne A. Fritz, Richard Grenyer, C. David L. Orme, Jon Bielby, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Marcel Cardillo, Kate E. Jones, John L. Gittleman, Georgina M. Mace, and Andy Purvis 15 Three Ambitious (and Rather Unorthodox) Assignments for the Field of Biodiversity Genetics 281 16 Engaging the Public in Biodiversity Issues 297 Michael J. Novacek 17 Further...

Organizations Engaging the Public

Orange County is home to an amazing number of organizations and chapters of national organizations concerned with conservation of groups of animals or plants, or preservation of individual natural areas. They are too numerous to list here, but can be found on the Orange County Directory and Search Engine OC (http www.at-oc.com community environment.htm). Where Does Biodiversity Go from Here A Grim Business-as-Usual Forecast and a Hopeful Portfolio of Partial Solutions

Peter J Bryant

Scientists can do only a small fraction of the monitoring that is necessary to document changes in the populations and distributions of wild animals and plants, so the collection of such data often depends on organized efforts by members of the public with appropriate expertise. Regular butterfly, bird, and mammal counts as well as more comprehensive species inventories such as BioBlitz have been increasing in popularity and in reliability. The use of this kind of biodiversity data has been...

Michael J Novacek

To engage people in biodiversity and other environmental issues, one must provide the opportunity for enhanced understanding that empowers individuals to make choices and take action based on sound science and reliable recommendations. To this end, we must acknowledge some real challenges. Recent surveys show that, despite growing public concern, environmental issues still rank below many other problems, such as terrorism, health care, the economy, and (in the U.S.) family values. Moreover,...

Monitoring Populations

Some of the more conspicuous plants and animals are observed and counted annually by coordinated efforts across wide geographic areas. The July 4th butterfly counts in North America, organized by the North American Butterfly Association (http www.naba.org counts.html), are a good example. These are usually carried out by small teams of volunteers, each led by at least one expert in the local butterfly fauna. Each team designs a transect within a 15-mile diameter count circle and counts and...

Niche Conservatism And Local Community Assembly

That there should exist a general relationship between phylogenetic relatedness and ecological interactions that are crucial to community assembly, has been evident from Darwin (1859) onward. As G. Evelyn Hutchinson put it (Hutchinson, 1965) ''It is evident that at any level in the structure of the biological community there is a set of complicated relations between species, which probably tend to become less important as the species become less closely allied. These relations are of the kind...

Microbes on Mountainsides Contrasting Elevational Patterns of Bacterial and Plant Diversity

BRYANT,* CHRISTINE LAMANNA,+ H L NE MORLON,* ANDREW J. KERKHOFF,* BRIAN J. ENQUIST,+ and JESSICA L. GREEN* The study of elevational diversity gradients dates back to the foundation of biogeography. Although elevational patterns of plant and animal diversity have been studied for centuries, such patterns have not been reported for microorganisms and remain poorly understood. Here, in an effort to assess the generality of elevational diversity patterns, we examined soil bacterial and...

Part III

TRENDS AND PROCESSES IN THE PALEONTOLOGICAL PAST Extinction has always been a part of life on Earth and is the ultimate fate of all species. Rates of extinction have varied across time, from standard or background rates to occasional mass events. The chapters in this section place the current biodiversity crisis in temporal perspective by scrutinizing the fossil record for patterns and processes of extinction in the distant and near past. The fossil record traditionally has been interpreted to...

Megafauna Loss vs Global Human Population Growth

FIGURE 12.2 Number of non-human megafauna species that went extinct through time plotted against estimated population growth of humans. FIGURE 12.2 Number of non-human megafauna species that went extinct through time plotted against estimated population growth of humans. FIGURE 12.3 Estimated biomass of humans plotted against the estimated biomass of non-human megafauna. See Methods for parameters used. FIGURE 12.3 Estimated biomass of humans plotted against the estimated biomass of non-human...

P

Pacific Marine Mammal Center, 326 Pacific Ocean. See Central Pacific Pakistan, 200 Paleobiology Database, 168, 208, 223 Paleocene, 48, 287 PALEOMAP Project, 257 Paleozoic, 182, 186, 192, 212, 214, 217 Pamlico Sound, 7 Panama, 38, 42, 115, 117, 124, 198 Panda clownfish, 60 PANGEA WORLD, 290-291, 292 Papua New Guinea, 32 Paradoxa, 64 Parasite biodiversity aquaculture and, 25 avian hosts, 63, 73-77 biomass, 81 climate change and, 63, 75-76 cryptic species, 67, 69 discovery rates, 67 diversity...

Preface to the In the Light of Evolution Series

Biodiversity the genetic variety of life is an exuberant product of the evolutionary past, a vast human-supportive resource (aesthetic, intellectual, and material) of the present, and a rich legacy to cherish and preserve for the future. Two urgent challenges, and opportunities, for 21st-century science are to gain deeper insights into the evolutionary processes that foster biotic diversity, and to translate that understanding into workable solutions for the regional and global crises that...

Rana In The Sierra Nevada Of California

One of the most intensively studied examples of amphibian declines comes from the Sierra Nevada of California. The mountain range spans thousands of square kilometers of roadless habitat, most of which is designated as National Park and Forest Service Wilderness Areas, the most highly protected status allowable under U.S. law. The range contains thousands of high-elevation (1,500- to 4,200-m) alpine lakes, as well as streams and meadows, that until recently harbored large amphibian populations....

Phanerozoic Decline in Extinction Rates

Again based largely on Sepkoski's data, it has long been believed that there has been a decline through the Phanerozoic in both extinction rates (Raup and Sepkoski, 1982) and origination rates (Gilinsky and Bambach, 1987). These observed declines are robust to the choice of rate metrics (Foote, 1994b). Indeed, the new data clearly support a decline in both kinds of rates (extinction vs. time p 0.547, P < 0.001 origination vs. time p 0.533, P < 0.001). The patterns are influenced by...

Public Priorities Where Does Biodiversity Rank

It would be unfortunate to dwell at length on the unbalanced public perception of various environmental issues without recognizing perhaps the most fundamental obstacle in communicating the urgency of these problems. We humans, of course, are confronted with many problems, environmental or otherwise, and without some sense of priorities, we would be totally overwhelmed by them. Recent surveys (Curry et al., 2007) show that in the U.S., environmental issues, even with the added concern over...

Recovery Predictions

The two major correlational relationships (Fig. 11.3) are well constrained over a realistic range of diversity and turnover levels, making it reasonable to offer specific predictions about the recovery from the mass extinction that is clearly underway (Myers and Knoll, 2001 Wake, 2008). First, however, the relationships need to be modeled as accurately as possible, which requires transforming the data appropriately and then fitting linear regression functions. The detrended diversity curve...

Reflections On The Evolution Of Ecological Traits

When I began studying phylogenetic systematics in the late 1970s, it was widely believed that ecologically important traits were too labile to be of much use in phylogenetic inference. The feeling was that such characters were so prone to homoplasy that they would be positively misleading about relationships instead, one should concentrate on characters that lack obvious functional value Mayr (1969) called this the ''Darwin principle'' . The rapid rise of the use of molecular data was partly a...

Toward a Protected Role Within the Global Economy

Ecotourism has long been one of the most potent forces favoring conservation and will continue to be so. Ecotourists are consumers of services that nature provides (beauty, adventure, life lists, etc.), and they obligingly pay for these services in many ways (paying for park entry fees, rooms at hotels, vehicle repairs at the local mechanic, etc.). But ecotourism is exceptional in these respects. The biosphere provides a steady stream of other direct and indirect benefits to humanity for which...

Rescue and Restoration

The public is also engaged in biodiversity issues through animal rescue and habitat restoration programs. One of the most active animal rescue operations locally is the Pacific Marine Mammal Center in Laguna Beach (http www.pacificmmc.org ), which was set up by Friends of the Sea Lion in 1971. Every year the staff and volunteers rescue between 150 and 200 marine mammals including California sea lions, harbor seals, and elephant seals and treat them for malnourishment, injuries, entanglement in...

Shifts in Public Attitude The Example of Global Warming

As noted, public awareness of the biodiversity crisis has risen slightly since the mid-1990s. However, this trend is now overshadowed by a greatly increased interest in global warming and climate change. The shift in public attention to this issue in the last few years is remarkable. In earlier polls (Biodiversity Project, 1996, 2002), people who ''identified extremely serious environmental problems'' ranked global climate change below virtually every other category, including land development,...

Resistance Resilience and Redundancy in Microbial Communities

H. MARTINY* Although it is generally accepted that plant community composition is key for predicting rates of ecosystem processes in the face of global change, microbial community composition is often ignored in ecosystem modeling. To address this issue, we review recent experiments and assess whether microbial community composition is resistant, resilient, or functionally redundant in response to four different disturbances. We find that the composition of...

Relating Biodiversity to Other Environmental Issues

Explanations of the importance of biodiversity should also be contextual. How we deal with the synergy of destructive environmental forces will define our future. Importantly, the combined effects of climate change, fragmented and degraded habitats, and threats to biodiversity need a more compelling presentation to reach many audiences preoccupied with global warming as the one big environmental problem. Disturbing examples of synergistically driven devastation are all too common. The traumatic...

Some Extinctions Are Spatially Complex

The K-T extinction is remarkably homogenous on a global scale, except perhaps for greater intensity in tropical carbonate settings (Raup and Jablonski, 1993 Jablonski, 2005). However, other extinction events, particularly those that are less severe on a global scale, tend to show more spatial structure. For example, the mid-Cretaceous (end-Cenomanian) marine extinction appears to have been concentrated in northern Europe and the Western Interior Seaway of North America. The smaller events in...

Some Public Misperceptions

That a deficit in knowledge leads to ambivalence or ill-advised conclusions and actions is clearly evident in the case of biodiversity conservation. An immediate obstacle, one noted from the outset (Biodiversity Project, 1998), is the use of the word biodiversity itself, hardly a word of common parlance. Surely biodiversity does not have the immediate recognition of phrases denoting other environmental aspirations, for example, ''pure water'' or ''clean air.'' Even when one moves closer to its...

Threats Facing Mammalian Biodiversity

The terrestrial environment is now dominated by people 1 4 to 1 3 of the land area has been transformed for human use (Vitousek et al., 1997). Additionally, human population density tends to be higher in species-rich areas, probably because productivity shapes both (Luck, 2007). Only a few mammal species fare well in human-dominated environments the vast majority are vulnerable to the widespread and rapid anthropogenic changes. The main direct human-induced drivers that impact biodiversity now...

These activities increase the level of awareness and thereby the level of concern felt by millions of citizens over

Scientists are finding extremely disturbing trends in many measures of the health of our environment, and they are continuing to document the ominous decline of many species and ecosystems. Some of the declines are enigmatic, some of them are beginning to be understood, and in some cases the causes are clear and are a result of human overexploitation, land conversion, or environmental contamination. Although it may be depressing to see so many signs of loss, it behooves us to document and...

The Economic Argument

As Ehrlich and Wilson (1991) stated, biodiversity has unquestionable economic value in terms of foods, medicines, and other benefits. Nonetheless, elaboration of this point must be carefully crafted. The economic argument may encounter objections from people who fail to understand why it is more important to preserve habitats than to log, farm, or develop them for more immediate and competitive economic needs. Conflicts in economic perspectives are also now apparent even in different groups who...

The Ecological Argument

That species are the fabric of ecosystems, which in turn provide essential services, is a powerful concept, but one that may escape many of those unfamiliar with biological principles. Again, in many instances, it is best to enter these discussions from a practical and experiential starting point, often with a focus on current news. For example, animal pollination of plants is not only central to the function of terrestrial ecosystems, but it is also essential to the survival, sustainability,...

The Reconstruction Of Diversity

Empty ecological space has long been considered a key factor in evolutionary innovations, as an unexploited opportunity opened by new adaptations, a new geographic region with underexploited resources, or an environment opened up through environmental change. Recoveries from mass extinctions have been viewed as encompassing each of these possibilities, as the removal of previously dominant clades provides opportunities for expansion, including by migration, of minor groups and the origin of new...

What Is The Principal Cause Of The Present Extinction Spasm

Human activities are associated directly or indirectly with nearly every aspect of the current extinction spasm. The sheer magnitude of the human population has profound implications because of the demands placed on the environment. Population growth, which has increased so dramatically since industrialization, is connected to nearly every aspect of the current extinction event. Amphibians may be taken as a case study for terrestrial organisms. They have been severely impacted by habitat...

Where Do Avian Hosts Occur

We have used a nearly complete, geo-referenced database of the geographical distributions of all of the world's 8,750 land-bird species to illustrate the geographic patterns of potential avian host diversity (sea birds and mainly pelagic species are excluded). These data reveal a range of patterns for avian diversity (Fig. 4.4) that are not only fascinating from the perspective of avian evolutionary radiations, but also raise an intriguing set of questions about patterns of parasite...

Public Participation Citizen Science

A relatively new effort aimed at eliciting public engagement, dubbed citizen science, involves public-professional partnerships that allow people of all ages an opportunity to participate in real scientific research and to interact with scientists in the process (Cohen, 1997 Brossard et al., 2005). Although the formulation of the idea has some novel aspects, it is rooted in the activities of amateur naturalists dating back in European culture to the 1700s (Sparks and Carey, 1995). The hope is...

Services natural beauty and pleasure and sustaining human lives is a message that requires constant attention and

The last decade of the 20th century was the first time a sense of urgency about the global-scale degradation of natural habitats, and the resultant threats to potentially millions of species, galvanized an effort to both study and conserve what was at risk. Edward O. Wilson (1988) was the first to publish the word ''biodiversity'' in the 1988 proceedings from a conference held in 1986 organized by W. J. Rosen, who originally coined the term. The current decimation of species, commonly called...

Demise of Reef Fauna

Corals are dying out around the world and are being replaced by fleshy macroalgae or algal turfs that may carpet the entire reef surface (Hughes, 1994 Pandolfi et al., 2005 Newman et al., 2006). In the Caribbean, live coral cover has fallen from an average of 55 in 1977 to 5 in 2001 (Table 1.1), whereas macroalgal cover has risen from an average of 5 to 40 (Gardner et al., 2003 Paredes, 2007). The demise of formerly ubiquitous and abundant elkhorn and staghorn corals (Acropora palmata and...

How Can We Stop The Degradation Of The Oceans

The three major drivers of ecosystem degradation are overexploitation, nutrient and toxic pollution, and climate change. The challenges of bringing these threats under control are enormously complex and will require fundamental changes in fisheries, agricultural practices, and the ways we obtain energy for everything we do. We have to begin somewhere, however, and the following very significant actions could begin right away without further scientific research or technological innovation. The...

Regulation Of Concentration Of Pollutants

Recent work by Sures (2003, 2004) and colleagues has shown that parasitic helminths may play a substantial role in concentrating and ultimately removing heavy metals and other pollutants from their hosts. They can concentrate and withstand levels of cadmium, zinc, and other heavy metals that are up to 2,000 above background levels (and 1,000 times greater than the levels sustained by snails and other host species widely used as monitors of toxicants and pollutants). Parasites achieve this level...

The Media as Audience and Partner

Effective linkages between the scientific and conservation community and the public must be made through the main channel of dissemination, namely media in the form of news and educational programming. Most adults learn about science through television, with print media running a distant second (National Science Board, 2004). Some biodiversity conservation strategies recommend that media be ''used'' to influence sectors of the public (Biodiversity Project, 1998). Initially, however, the news...

The National Academies

Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering and Medicine In the Light of Evolution Volume II Biodiversity and Extinction In the Light of Evolution Volume II Biodiversity and Extinction JOHN C. AVISE, STEPHEN P. HUBBELL, and FRANCISCO J. AYALA, Editors THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street., N.W. Washington, DC 20001 This volume is based on the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, In the Light of...

How Many Parasites And What Is Their Role In An Ecological Food

An alternative approach to ascertain global estimates of parasite diversity is simply to examine how many parasites are in a specific habitat or ecosystem. We have been undertaking this for salt marshes along the coasts of California and Baja, Mexico (Lafferty et al., 2006a,b Kuris et al., 2008). The initial results confirm that 40 of the species in any location are parasitic on the 60 of species that are free-living. However, consideration of the trophic links of the parasitic species...

Extinction Selectivity Changes At The Most Extreme Events

A broad array of organismic and clade-level traits enter into extinction risk for present-day species. For example, in evaluating extinction risk in present-day terrestrial vertebrates, Purvis and colleagues (Purvis et al., 2000b, 2005a Davies et al., Chapter 14, this volume) found mixed, but significant, effects for body size, a consistent inverse relation between extinction risk and both abundance and geographic range, and either a positive relation or no effect for habitat specialization....

Into a Less Peopled Less Hostile Planet

The human impact on biodiversity is a product of three root factors, summarized in the heuristic I PAT identity (Ehrlich and Holdren, 1971). The overall Impact (encompassing all of the drivers of biodiversity loss discussed above) is the product of Population size, per capita Affluence, and the Technologies (and socioeconomic-political systems) used to generate affluence. ''Affluence'' in this context is simply per capita consumption, and ''socioeconomic-political systems'' refer to the...