Both spatial leakage (landowners not voluntarily entering the credit system) and temporal leakage (landowners selling credits this period with the sequestered carbon being emitted in later periods) are a problem with credit systems. A forest landowner, who forgoes harvesting to sequester carbon, reduces the supply of lumber. But the demand for lumber remains, and so other lumber suppliers produce more lumber,
Are relatively short-lived such as food or pulp and paper. Others may remain 'stored' for decades or centuries such as lumber used in buildings or furniture. Schlamadinger and Marland (1999) provide some estimates and discuss issues related to carbon in the product stream. This raises the question that in harvesting a forest, should harvested product be tracked until it actually decomposes, and only then be counted as an emission of carbon requiring an allowance In principle, the answer is 'yes' because this would provide an incentive to not finally dispose of these products if they can be salvaged or reused, and would accurately account for the time between harvest and decomposition when the carbon remained out of the atmosphere. In practice, this would require a complex tracking system both of the product and of the owners of the product to ensure that they were liable for emissions if and when they dispose of the product in such a way that the carbon was released to the atmosphere....
Third, optimizing the use of forest products to substitute for other fossil-fuel CO2 emissions At larger scale this may mean using lumber instead of concrete for some building purposes. But it can also affect fire reduction policies that require the removal of undergrowth and occasional thinning by local communities to contribute to fuel needs among those who harvest the 'windfall' (UNEP 2008).
The third, and final, step is to control and properly dispose of the wastes that are generated. This requires disposal systems and options, and education of the installation population. The primary type of disposal of wastes from military facilities should be recycling. Almost all military facilities have recycling systems, and there is an accounting system in place to return profits from the recycling program to the facility. However, recycling could be greatly expanded, resulting in significant cost savings as disposal fees for waste increase. All wastes should be evaluated for recycling before disposal, and consideration should be given to giving away waste material such as scrap lumber or metal rather than disposing of it as pure waste.
Disturbed Land Reclamation The surface mining of coal, exploration for minerals, generation of spoils from underground mines, and tailings from mining operations have created over 1.5 million hectares (3.7 million acres) of disturbed lands in the United States (U.S. EPA, 1983). These lands are usually a harsh environment for vegetation because of a lack of nutrients and organic matter, low pH, low water-holding capacity, low rates of water infiltration and permeability, and the presence of toxic levels of trace metals. The major reason for land reclamation is to revegetate a site so that water and wind erosion will be reduced. A revegetated site has the potential for agricultural production, animal grazing, and reforestation for lumber and pulp production. These benefits relate to the fact that biosolids can increase agricultural and forest utilization of disturbed lands and reduce environmental contamination from these lands. Disturbed land reclamation consists of a one-time...
Of carbon back to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide through plant and soil respiration. By comparison, humans release approximately 6 Pg of carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide through fossil fuel combustion. Forests also modify weather patterns and local- to regional-hydrologic cycles, and higher rates of plant productivity in forests translate to larger export of products, including biomass feedstock for paper, dimension lumber, and biofuels.
Embodied energy is defined in the U.S. DOE's Buildings Energy Data Book as the energy used during the entire life cycle of a product including the energy used for manufacturing, transporting, and disposing of the product. For example, the embodied energy in dimensional lumber includes the energy used to grow, harvest and process the trees into boards, transport the lumber to its final destination, and ultimately dispose of the wood at the end of its useful life. Embodied energy, also called life cycle assessment (LCA), is a useful tool for evaluating the relative environmental impact of various building materials because it takes production, transportation, and disposal into account, all things that can have a pronounced environmental impact but are not necessarily reflected in the price 7 .
The Pacific Northwest encompasses extensive forests, topography that creates abrupt changes in climate and ecosystems over short distances, with mountain and marine environments in close proximity. The Northwest provides about one-fourth of the nation's softwood lumber and plywood. The fertile lowlands of eastern Washington produce 60 percent of the nation's apples and large fractions of its other tree fruit. Population and economic growth of this area has been twice the national rate since 1970, its population nearly doubling during this period. The area provides moderate climate, a high quality of life, and outdoor recreational opportunities, which are becoming increasingly stressed because of the rapid development occurring in the area. Stresses are occurring today from dam operations, land-use conversion from natural ecosystems to metropolitan areas, intensively managed forests, agriculture, and grazing. The result has been in the loss of old-growth forests, wetlands, and native...
The advent of complex agricultural societies distanced and often weakened the link between people and nature. Nature became less the habitat for the farmer than a set of economic resources to be managed and manipulated by the dominant group.72 This was particularly true of cultures where the ruling classes were urban-based, as in Greco-Roman antiquity. Indeed, the Greeks, and later the Romans, were not much more successful than the Sumerians in producing an ecologically sustainable civilization. When the Mesopotamian civilizations at the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent had faded, the Mediterranean basin was still a relatively well-watered land, mostly covered with thick forests. Corsica, for instance, had tall trees crowding its shores, their branches extending far enough to occasionally break the masts of the ships of the first settlers. Vast Mediterranean forests covered rich soils that would one day support the granaries of the Roman Empire.73 However, the ecological abundance...
Pieces of lumber, dunnage, sawn and dressed timber, and parts of packing crates and boxes, together with obvious ship wreckage such as spars and fittings, are particularly plentiful near Derry Castle Reef, Enderby Island, and minor quantities were found elsewhere. Natural driftwood is not uncommon. Most pieces are small and gnarled and, like the worked wood, bleached white from long exposure to the elements and much abraded and worn. Rounded pumice clasts, up to and exceeding 300 mm across, are almost invariably present.
Soil organic C sequestration is a highly recommended approach to sequester organic C. Increasing SOM content under current farming systems in Zambia maybe an easier approach to sequester SOC. In the northern part of the country, the chitemene and fundikila systems could be made more productive by increasing biomass accumulation in the miombo woodlands and reducing the burning of vegetation. The introduction of suitable multipurpose trees, herbaceous woody legumes that contain high lignin, polyphenols, and condensed tannins like Calliandra calothyrsus and Gliricidia sepium, would be one way to sequester C, as these materials are C sinks and release C slowly over long periods of time (Malama, 1998). Encouraging water harvesting may help to sequester soil C in the drier areas of Region 1, where the soils are prone to erosion and water is a limiting factor to crop production. In all three agroecological regions, enhancing biomass production and accumulation, and reducing deforestation...
Human population growth and widespread Anglo-European settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries have influenced the balance of grass-woody plant interactions worldwide. For example, extensive clearing of trees for fuel, lumber, and cropland has fragmented forests and produced anthropogenic or degraded savannas (Gadgill and Meher-Homji, 1985 Sinclair and Fryxell, 1985 Cline-Cole et al., 1990 Schule, 1990 Young and Solbrig,
The most advanced industries in Arkhangel'skaya Oblast' are machine construction, metal processing, fuel and energy production, and fishery. The timber industry with wood and cellulose processing is of utmost importance. It accounts for 53 of the total industrial production in Arkhangel'skaya Oblast' and for a significant part of all lumber, saw-timber, cellulose, and paper produced in Russia.
The wood-preserving process involves bath soaking and steam vacuum drying of lumber and plywood. Preservatives used include creosote, chlorophenolic compounds, and inorganic arsenical and or chromate salts. This industry generates approximately 719 Kg yr of sludges (F032, F033, F034, F03S) containing chromium, copper, arsenic, and lead. It should be noted that these sludges are not currently listed as RCRA hazardous wastes, but are proposed for listing. The most prevalent current practice for managing these sludges is landfilling. Liquid wastes such as those from cooling towers are treated on-site by chromium reduction and precipitation with lime, hydrogen sulfide, or sodium sulfide. The wood-preserving industry uses 20 percent of all arsenic consumption, as approximately 90 percent of wood preservatives are in the form of chrome copper arsenate.
North Carolina farmers produce a wide range of products (tobacco, soybeans, cotton, corn, poultry, hogs, and wheat). North Carolina takes advantage of its coastline for commercial fishing. Forests cover over half of North Carolina's land, lumber is produced in all areas of the state, and tree growth is rapid in the mild, moist climate. The state is known for furniture manufacturing, tobacco products, textiles, chemicals, industrial machinery, and electrical equipment. Fossil-fuel (mostly coal) burning steam plants, nuclear power plants, and hydroelectric power plants produce electricity.
A geographically diverse state in the southern United States, Arkansas depends heavily upon lumber and wood products, agriculture, forestry, and tourism for its economic stability. All of these sectors are particularly vulnerable to the changes global warming can produce in the state's ecosystem. Arkansans have been slow to respond to threats to the state's environment, but, in recent years, both city and state governments have begun implementing strategies designed to address the problem. A 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that temperatures in Arkansas could increase from 1-5 degrees F (0.5-2.7 degrees C) by 2100.
Lumber is a major industry and preservation is a concern. Commercial logging started in the 1800s and has claimed 90 percent of the forests that once grew in the Pacific Northwest, creating checkerboards of clear-cut and uncut forest vulnerable to environmental pressures. More than half the remaining untouched forest areas in Olympic National Forest are slated for cutting during the next 50 years, as is 69 percent of the old growth in Oregon's Siuslaw National Forest. Trees absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), and as more trees are cut, the less CO2 can be absorbed.
While forests act as sinks, deforestation prevents the absorption of CO2. Therefore, fewer trees mean more CO2 in the atmosphere. The causes of deforestation include logging for lumber, pulpwood, and fuel wood. The clearing of new land for farming and pastures for livestock, or the building of new housing, are some of the other reasons for deforestation. About 860 acres the size of New York City's Central Park are being destroyed every 15 minutes in the tropics.
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