In the area surrounding the Song Thanh Nature Reserve in the Quang Nam Province of Vietnam, WWF and partners undertook a participatory landscape planning process with community members from nine villages.102 A papier-mach 1 10,000 model of the 30,000-hectare landscape surrounding the reserve was used to facilitate planning and decision making amongst villagers and forestry sector employees.
Various ideologies resulting from this second nature, especially how nature should be managed or controlled, have contributed to the present fragmented landscape. The evolutionary significance of the mature (model) system, including how natural selection has resulted in the evolution of efficient mechanisms for insect pest control, nutrient recycling, and mutualistic behavior, is often poorly understood. A hallmark of these mature and sustainable ecological systems is also maximum biological diversity (Moffat, 1996 Tilman et al., 1996 Tilman, 1997). Environmental literacy must increase if societies are to develop sustainable agriculture and sustainable agrolandscapes (Barrett, 1992 Orr, 1992). For example, natural processes and concepts such as pulsing, carrying capacity, natural pest control, nutrient cycling, positive and negative feedback (cybernetics), and net primary productivity must be understood by ecologically literate societies in order to provide a quality environment for...
A telescopic microscopic view of the landscape provides a mosaic of patches (isolated and connected) that form a complex network of elements constituting our 20th-century landscape. The fragmentation of science and the proliferation of management policies indicative of the 20th century must be replaced by integrated approaches during the 21st century if societies are to achieve the goal of sustainable societies and to protect biotic diversity at regional and global scales. Lubchenco et al. (1991) outlined a research initiative necessary to establish a sustainable biosphere initiative (SBI) at greater scales. Programs or initiatives, such as the SBI, should focus on the landscape level (including human settlements) with special attention directed to protecting and restoring the integrity of ecosystem and landscape processes and to conserving biotic diversity. Only with long-term land-use planning can humans hope to protect and restore sustainable landscapes for future generations.
One potential response option is altering the reflectivity of surface structures by whitening roofs and road surfaces or employing green rooftop and landscaping options (Akbari et al., 2001 Betsill, 2001). Roofs and paved surfaces typically comprise about 25 and 35 percent, respectively, of dense urban areas (Akbari et al., 2009), so increasing the reflectivity of these surfaces offers the potential to offset some of the urban heat island effect and influence global climate (see Chapter 15). Green rooftops and landscaping options not only reduce urban and regional heat islands but can also improve local and regional air quality (Taha et al., 1997) and provide recreational opportunities and other nonclimate benefits. Alternative city designs or configurations can also lower the heat island effect (Eliasson, 2000 Unger, 2004), although with varying impacts on water and energy consumption that introduce a new suite of trade-offs to consider. Smart or green redesigns of cities that foster...
Assessment of DNA Damage as a Tool to Measure UVB Tolerance in Soybean Lines Differing in Foliar Flavonoid Composition
1 Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, 2122 Plant Sciences Building University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA E-mail jsull umd.edu 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA E-mail bms bnl.gov 3 Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA E-mail blumj uncw.edu 4 Department of Biology and Marine Biology University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA E-mail stapletona uncw.edu 5USDA-ARS, 3810 4th Street, Lubbock, Texas 79415,USA
Telescopes, video cameras, and satellites. When a 35-mm camera takes a photograph, for instance, a hard-copy print of the object is the output. If the picture were of a house, the photo interpreter would gain useful information such as the shape of the house, number of floors, number of windows, color, and landscaping. Using the photo, an interpreter is able to gather all this information without ever physically touching the house.
Management of agrolandscapes for sustainability both influence and is influenced by biodiversity (Paoletti, 1995). Landscape planning is a process through Increased biodiversity at the landscape level (in the form of increased habitat or agroecosystem diversity) will play a key role in protecting diversity and in providing a linkage between urban and rural areas in our sustainable landscape approach. For example, that an optimum balance between solar-powered and subsidized systems in suburban areas is critical to this linkage. The success of obtaining this optimum balance will almost certainly be enhanced by increasing the diversity of habitat types across the total landscape. Greenways or natural corridors will also enhance the linkage and conserve biological diversity between urban and rural areas (Little, 1990). Management of agroecosystems and agrolandscapes for sustainability will lead to increased habitat and genetic diversity, which, in turn, will lead to increased...
An emerging domain for some spent foundry sand reuse is as a component in the manufacture of topsoil and growing amendments or composites. In many parts of the globe, high-quality topsoils for landscaping are not available in urban areas. Commercial landscapers and nursery growers frequently manufacture topsoil and composite by blending composted materials and low-quality soils, which not only exhausts natural resource, but also increases manufacture cost. Spent foundry sand has been reported to be amended into a product matching the characteristics of topsoil and amendments this could be another competitive and vast market for both the metal casting industry and horticultural professionals. Topsoil is the uppermost layer of the Earth's surface, ranging in depth from a few inches to many feet. Topsoil has been created over long time by the physical and chemical action of climate, weather on the Earth's parent rock materials, and decay of plants. As a result, a considerable...
The camera ean be an effective tool in capturing the visual impact that pollutants have on a visual resource. Figures 12a to 12d show the effect that various levels of uniform haze have on a Glacier National Park vista. These photographs were taken of the Garden Wall from across Lake McDonald. Figures 13 and 14 show similar hazes of vistas at Mesa Verde and Bryce Canyon National Parks. The Chuska Mountains in Figure 13 are 95 km away, Navajo Mountain in Figure 14 is 130 km distant. This photograph should be compared with Figure la, a photograph of Navajo Mountain taken on a day in which the particulate concentration in the atmosphere was near zero. Figure 12 Effect of regional or uniform haze on a Glacier National Park vista. The view is of the Garden Wall from across Lake McDonald. Atmospheric particulate concentrations associated with photographs ( ), (b), (e), and (d) correspond to 7.6, 12,0, 21.7, and 65.3 (ig m . See ftp site for color image. Figure 12 Effect of regional or...
Landscaping of a green home is designed to minimize fertilizer, herbicide, pesticide, and water use. Trees are also planted to provide shade (passive cooling for the home). Permeable paving is used to recharge groundwater and reduce surface run off. Finally, non-toxic methods of insect and pest control should be used.
The slope or terrace of an OF system must be graded to a uniform smoothness with no low spots or reversals in grade. Finish slopes of 1 to 8 are usually acceptable, although 2 is considered minimum in some states. Cross slopes should not exceed 0.5 , especially when finish slopes are 1 to 2 . Where extensive cut-and-fill operations are necessary, the slope should be watered and allowed to settle after rough grading. Any depressions should then be filled, and the slope should be final graded, disked, and landscaped (USEPA, 1984).
Grammes (also see Restoring Water Quality and Quantity ). Amenity The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States have restoration programmes with a heavy emphasis on amenity. This is the realm of landscape architecture.138 Avalanche control This is an important issue in temperate and boreal countries and there is an abundant literature. Timber Timber is the real objective of much so-called restoration. Caution is needed because narrow timber production objectives are rarely consistent with the broader objectives of local people and the environment. Tree crops Tree crops include oil palm, coffee, cacao, rubber etc. More can be found on this topic in the chapter on agroforestry, cited above, but also in publications on extractive reserves and jungle rubber.
The authors gratefully acknowledge partial funding for this study from the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. The assistance of Laura Grossman and Dr. Tom Housley is also appreciated. We also acknowledge Drs. Jeffrey Volenec and Cliff Johnston of the Department of Agronomy, Purdue University for allowing us to use their laboratory facilities, Dr. Robert Joly of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture for lending us the steady-state pyrometer, and Ms. Judy Santini of the Department of Agronomy, Purdue University for valuable advice concerning statistical analyses.
Karelse van der Meer (2003) Urban Design Blauwe Stad, Province of Groningen Groningen Meliefste, C.J., Ankersmit, G.J., Meere, M. and Verwer, E.A. (2008) Building on Structures, Adaptation to Climate Change Master atelier Landscape Architecture, WUR Wageningen Mendini, A.M. (1994) Groninger Museum Fabbri editori Bergamo
Homeowners Guide To Landscaping
How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.