Land Development Model

Land Development Model

Land development is the alteration of landscape in a number of ways. For instance, land can be changed from it's natural or semi-natural state and developed for housing or agriculture. Real estate is also sub divided into lots for the purpose of building homes. The land development model is an appraisal and valuation tool that is inexpensive, powerful, and easy to use. The model has several advantages which are helpful for land developers. For instance, the model estimates how productive a single or multi phased land can be, determine the land value and it also develops pro-forma financial statements which provide essential information on what to expect in the future, including the balance sheets, cash flows, income statements and sales, and earnings forecasts. The model also provides its users with information on how to go about the evaluation and estimation of the option value, analyzing the effects of absorption on profitability, analyzing impacts of seller financing on profits among others. The model can be used by individuals who are interested in sub-division processes such as builders, real estate appraisers, lenders, developers, and even real estate agents. The reasonably priced model is affordable for all its users. More here...

Land Development Model Summary


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Carbon Inventory for Forest Grassland and Cropland Development Programmes and Projects

And loss of tropical forests and biodiversity as well as about shortages of fuelwood and construction timber, a large number of forest conservation and land development programmes and projects have been formulated and implemented all over the world. The area brought under afforestation and reforestation programmes globally was 2.8 Mha annually during 2000-2005 and the total area under plantations was about 140 Mha in 2005 (FAO 2006). Apart from degradation and loss of forests, degradation of grassland and cropland and expansion of deserts are other land-related environmental concerns. Globally, a large number of programmes have been launched for conservation, reclamation and development of grassland and cropland and for halting desertification.

T Yano and S Wang Introduction

Desertification in arid regions is caused mainly by misuse of soil and water resources. In the 1960s, the intensive land development program in the Aral Sea region promoted by the former Soviet Union, triggered a series of environmental and socioeconomical problems. In Kazakstan, economical gains in cultivating agricultural crops on the original pastoral land by using water from the Syr Darya and Amu Darya Rivers have been achieved at a great expense, degradation of the environment in these river basins. In the Kzyl Orda region, rice cropping is popular and the total rice area in the region is about 93,000 ha, which is equivalent to 36 of the total irrigated area.1 Due to inappropriate water management, however, salt accumulation has occurred in farmlands, resulting in the increase of abandoned lands. It is estimated that, in the Kzyl Orda region of Kazakstan, about 60 to 70 of the total irrigated area has been salt-affected. Since salt accumulation in abandoned lands worsens the soil...

Mitigating hurricane risk

Government can direct development away from hazardous areas which would limit the potential damage from storms. However, government efforts to discourage development of hazardous areas through the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) have been ineffective. The NFIP, begun in 1968, was to guide development away from flood-prone areas and to enforce building standards, in exchange for subsidized flood insurance for property owners. Due to the influence of special interest groups such as land developers, the policy has not been effective. Burby (2001) found that more than a third of the 6.6 million buildings located in the 100-year floodplains of participating communities were built after the start of the NFIP floodplain management plan.

Thermokarst Development 1331 Initiation

Temperature in summer and often initiates thermokarst activity, as resulted from camp construction and drilling activities during the 1940s and 1950s on the tundra of the National Petroleum Reserve, northern Alaska (Lawson 1986). Further south, in the boreal forest near Fairbanks, central Alaska, removal of spruce trees, moss and underlying peat for land development resulted in thermokarst ponds forming within 5 years of site clearance (Nicholas and Hinkel 1996). Because of its low albedo (

Acquisition and Relocation

The most effective measure to reduce losses is to keep the floodplains free of development. However, in many river valleys in the world, it is too late for that option. One of the most promising strategies for reducing flood losses is the public acquisition of developed land susceptible to flooding (Conrad, 1998 www.fema. gov mit homsups.htm). The authorization for U.S. federal cost sharing for relocation is more than 30 years old. However, only recently have communities, tired by chronic flooding, taken advantage of funding packages and relocated. In one case, the entire town of Valmeyer, Illinois, was relocated. The town had a long history of floods. In 1943, 1944, and 1947 unusually high levels of the Mississippi caused flooding in the nearby bottomlands affecting Valmeyer. After the 1947 floods, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers raised the levees protecting the reach of the flood-plain to 47 ft. On August 1, 1993, the flood overtopped the levees inundating Valmeyer, prompting its...

Ecological Blunders Of Antiquity

Unfortunately, Meng Tze's advice was not heeded. A major force in decimation of both plants and wildlife during Meng Tze's life was the expansion of agriculture into undeveloped land. In the two centuries before, the ox-drawn iron plowshare had come into use, supplementing human labor with a major new source of energy. Advanced agricultural tools and methods of fertilizing had been invented. Thus, it is not surprising that Meng Tze spoke of the increase of cultivated land at the expense of the wild. His contemporary, the legalist Shang Yang, urged rulers to take measures to cultivate wasteland as a deliberate policy to increase population. Rulers often ordered the cultivation of wasteland to increase agricultural production and combat famine.37 Moreover, they frequently squandered their states' resources on ostentatious new palaces, tombs, self-indulgence, and, above all, military campaigns. From the fourth century BCE onward, economic crises and famines plagued China.38 Deforestation...

The Planet As Demographic Sacrifice Zone

Conversion of natural habitat to human use will further reduce the value of remaining wild areas for most wildlife. When development chops wild lands into fragments, native species often decline simply because the small remnants cannot meet their biological needs. For example, studies of US forest birds indicate that species that prefer to nest on forest interiors are more subject to predation and lay fewer eggs when habitat fragmentation forces them to nest along forest edges. A study in southern California indicated that most canyons lose about half the native bird species depending on chaparral habitat within 20 to 40 years after the canyons become isolated by development, even though the chaparral brush remains. Biologist William Newmark's 1987 study of 14 Canadian and US national parks showed that 13 of the parks had lost some of their mammal species, at least in part because the animals could not adapt to confinement within parks surrounded by developed land. The Breeding Bird...

Carbon Inventory for Agroforestry Shelterbelt Grassland Management and Soil Conservation Activities

(iii) Soil conservation practices Watershed protection including soil conservation is one of the critical objectives of many land development projects. Watershed protection is achieved by soil conservation practices such as contour bunding, gully plugging, and check dams. Soil conservation measures also increase soil organic matter and productivity of crops or grass cover.

Physical Setting And Hydrology

In 1628, New York City was a small village of 270 settlers today it is an urban metropolis of 16 million (Figure 6-5). The physical environment of the New York region has contributed greatly to its enormous growth and economic development. The natural port of the harbor has made commerce and shipping a major component of the economy since the colonial era. The Watchung and Ramapo mountains, west and northwest of the city, also focused growth around the harbor by constraining transportation routes and land development patterns. In 1810, New York emerged as the largest city in the new nation, surpassing Boston and Philadelphia. New transportation routes the Erie Canal in 1825 and railroad connections between New York and Phila-

Strategies For Inland Brine Disposal Zld And Fluidized Bed Crystallizers

Desalination remains an expensive, energy-intensive process. Therefore, membrane-based ZLD operations are gaining favor as the technology expands for improved membranes and energy recovery, though evaporative systems may be viable in regions with low humidity and large tracts of undeveloped land.

Love Canal Is Not For Honeymooners

Love Canal is not a place many people would choose to visit on a honeymoon. Love Canal was a quiet neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, that became infamous as one of the most horrific toxic waste dumps in the country. The history of Love Canal began in the 1890s, when entrepreneur William T. Love envisioned building a canal that would connect the two levels of the Niagara River, above and below the falls, for generating electricity and, eventually, as a shipping canal. He dug about a mile (1.6 km) of the canal, with a channel about 15 feet (5 m) wide and 10 feet (3 m) deep, before his scheme failed and the project was abandoned. Eventually his land was sold to the city of Niagara Falls, which used the undeveloped land as a landfill for chemical waste. The canal was thought to be appropriate for this use since the geology consisted of impermeable clay and the area was rural. The area was then acquired by Hooker Chemical, which continued its use as a toxic chemical landfill,...

And other geological agents

A typical phenomenon of the permafrost regions zone are ice bodies which arise and grow only during the frost season of a year. They form from different sources of water ground water, subsurface water, river water, lacustrine water (often icings have a mixed recharge). The flat-convex ice bodies - icings - result from multiple inputs of these waters onto the surface and their freezing in lamina. Icings have an impact on the re-distribution of surface runoff and terrain giving rise to specific deposits ('icing alluvium'), they are capable of exerting a detrimental impact on engineering structures. Often icings arise as a result of the altered freezing conditions associated with construction and operation of different structures and other features of land development. Severe and extreme continental climates with cold win

Japanese Experience

Tokyo Spatial Plan

Within the Tokyo metropolitan area urbanisation increased rapidly. At the same time rainwater runoff, due to heavy rainfall, increased as well. The basin of the Motoara-river suffered large damages caused by floods. Within Koshigaya Lake Town (Fig. 4.16), a new development, a regulation pond was implemented in order to reduce flood damages (Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005). The purpose is to create an environment, which is safe for the residents and comfortable (Fig. 4.17). Fig. 4.16 Location of the regulation pond (Source Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005) Fig. 4.16 Location of the regulation pond (Source Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005) Fig. 4.17 A safe and comfortable environment (Source Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005) Fig. 4.17 A safe and comfortable environment (Source Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005) Fig. 4.18 The overflow dike, control gate, diversion and drainage channels and drainage gate (Source Koshigaya Land Development Office, 2005)...

Carbon Pools and Measurement Frequency for Carbon Inventory

A carbon inventory, for carbon mitigation as well as forest conservation and land development programmes and for greenhouse gas inventory programmes and projects, requires estimation of stocks of carbon pools in biomass and in soil for a given period. There are five carbon pools, and measurement, monitoring and projection of changes in stocks of carbon in all the five carbon pools may be desirable. However, the cost of monitoring all the carbon pools is likely to be high. Further, stocks of some of the carbon pools may not change or change only marginally during the period selected for monitoring or projection. Therefore, the most cost-effective way of carbon inventory is to identify and monitor the key carbon pools that are likely to be impacted by the project activities or as a result of human intervention involving land-use change, conservation practices, planting trees or grasses, improved management practices, harvesting rates, cultural operations and so on.

Sampling Method and Location of the Plots

The sampling method described in Chapter 10 could be adopted to determine the sample size, number and size of plots. The sampling procedure will be more complex since, at a national level, the area covered under each land stratum or category is large and spatially spread over large regions with diverse rainfall, soil and topographic conditions and management systems, compared to projects, which are normally spread over thousands of hectares. Thus, the sample plots could be larger than those of carbon mitigation or land development projects, since the area under each land strata is likely to be large, running to millions of hectares. The selected number of plots should be located on the spatial latitude-longitude grid map depicting different land strata. These sample plots should be located in the field using GPS readings and marked on the field as well as on the map (refer to Chapter 10 for the procedure).

Improve understanding of how transportation contributes to climate change As

Improve understanding of what controls the volume of transportation activity. While there is potential for tempering growth in vehicle miles traveled by increasing land development densities, a recent NRC report (NRC, 2009e) found a lack of sound research on the potential for increasing metropolitan densities to affect travel, energy use, and emissions. Further research is needed on the relationships among household location, workplace location, trip-making activity, and light-duty vehicle travel, and on the effectiveness of various policy mechanisms to influence these relationships. Technological improvements such as online shopping, telecommuting, and virtual conferencing also have the potential to significantly reduce total transportation activity, but further research is needed on how to facilitate and promote expanded use of these technologies (and this research will require data on current levels of usage of these technologies an example of a climate-relevant observation that...

Shifts in Public Attitude The Example of Global Warming

As noted, public awareness of the biodiversity crisis has risen slightly since the mid-1990s. However, this trend is now overshadowed by a greatly increased interest in global warming and climate change. The shift in public attention to this issue in the last few years is remarkable. In earlier polls (Biodiversity Project, 1996, 2002), people who ''identified extremely serious environmental problems'' ranked global climate change below virtually every other category, including land development, loss of rain forests, and damage to the oceans. More recent surveys, including notably the recently published Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) poll (Curry et al., 2007), show a radical reversal in public interest. Global warming now clearly occupies the top of the list of serious environmental problems faced by the U.S. by a wide margin, as judged by nearly 50 of respondents in 2006 as opposed to only 20 recorded by an MIT poll in 2003 (Curry, 2004). By contrast, primary concern over...

Settlements 81 Introduction

This Chapter provides methods for estimating carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with changes in biomass, dead organic matter (DOM), and soil carbon on lands classified as settlements. Settlements are defined in Chapter 3 as including all developed land -- i.e., residential, transportation, commercial, and production (commercial, manufacturing) infrastructure of any size, unless it is already included under other land-use categories. The land-use category Settlements includes soils, herbaceous perennial vegetation such as turf grass and garden plants, trees in rural settlements, homestead gardens and urban areas. Examples of settlements include land along streets, in residential (rural and urban) and commercial lawns, in public and private gardens, in golf courses and athletic fields, and in parks, provided such land is functionally or administratively associated with particular cities, villages or other settlement types and is not accounted for...


Ties from 1980 to 1995 was 340.16 million mu (approximately 22.67 million hectares ). Calculating for an annual decrease of 30 percent in grain yield, we can figure out that the annual output will decrease 24,945,000 tons, which accounts for 4.2-9.0 percent of the total grain output and 6.05 percent of the average output of the year. Therefore it is urgent to set up and improve a number of large scale irrigation and drainage facilities. These will play a significant role, not only in strengthening the comprehensive capacity of grain production. Apart from this, there is a great potential in the reserve resources of agriculture, though the cultivated land resource is limited in China. China has 500 million mu ( approximately 26.7 million hectares ) grass land and grass hillsides which can be developed. Consequently, cultivating undeveloped land and ameliorating fields with moderate and low output in order to protect cultivated land area and increase the per unit area yield will play a...

Summarising Comments

We have used a relatively simple approach to assess impacts of changes in productivity as determined by climate change, increasing CO2 concentration and technology development on future agricultural land use. Our results suggest that future land use changes can be substantial depending on the productivity of crops. Estimated decreases in agricultural land use were particularly high for the economic scenarios. Technology development was the most important driver of productivity and land use change. Effects of climate change and raising CO2 concentration were comparably small at the European level, but might be more important for regions with marginal production conditions and a high sensitivity to climate change (e.g. southern and northern Europe). The socio-economic and environmental implications of the developed land use change scenarios remain unclear. Adequate tools and methodologies will be required to gain better understanding of the multi-dimensional implications of crop...

Lake Ecology

Lake biological communities in New Zealand and Australia appear to be structured quite differently to those of Northern Hemisphere lakes. At the base of the aquatic food chain the paradigm of nutrient limitation by phosphorus cannot be generalized to lakes in the Southern Hemisphere. Nutrient limitation by nitrogen has often been observed in open waters of many New Zealand lakes, particularly those of the Central Volcanic Plateau region of the North Island. Relatively recent land development and intensification of farming activities present a significant challenge for managing lakes in this region due to increased nitrogen leaching to the groundwater aquifers that contribute most of the lakes' nutrient load.

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