South America

In South America there are two major saline lake areas. The first is the Bolivian Altiplano region and its northern extension into Peru, which contains many shallow permanent saline lakes as well as ephemeral salt pans. Some of the highest saline lakes in the world are located here (4000-4500 masl). The second region is found in the Pampas of central Argentina and stretches into northern Patagonia. Its

Table 2 Divergent chemical composition of selected Saskatchewan and African saline lakes

Lake

Salinity

Ca

Mg

Na

K

HCOs

CO3

Cl

SO4

Muskikia

370.2

145

29000

62 200

1600

1469

0

11 400

237 000

Patiencea

219.3

1880

2625

55 200

25 200

102

24

105000

17 200

Little Manitoua

95.9

497

9518

12 300

890

776

209

18 000

39600

Deadmoosea

27.1

268

1592

5390

324

429

122

6000

11 000

Redberry5

19.4

99

2271

1860

178

551

125

220

12 500

Reflexa

8.1

10

65

2900

67

1220

396

3500

480

Victoria" (Africa)

118

5.6

2.6

10.4

3.8

56.1

3.9

2.3

Tanganyika^ (Africa)

460

9.2

1.6

57

18

6.0

20.9

7.2

Malawib (Africa)

200

16.4

4.7

21

6.4

2.4

3.6

5.5

Eyrec (Australia)

115 940

910

300

43 780

10

40

67 960

2940

Magadid (Africa)

n/a

n/a

n/a

162 400

2340

0

121 800

74 100

2480

Salinity in ppt (%) and ions in mg T1 (ppm). n/a - not available.

aFrom Hammer UT (1978) The saline lakes of Saskatchewan III: Chemical Composition. Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol. 63: 311-335. bFrom JF and Talling IB (1965) The chemical composition of African lake waters. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 50: 421-463.

cFrom Williams WD (1984) Chapter 20: Australian Saline Lakes. pp. 499-519. In Taub F (ed.) Ecosystems of the World 23: Lakes and Reservoirs. Elsevier, New York.

dFrom Livingstone DA and Melack JM (1984) Chapter 19: Lakes of Sub-Saharan Africa pp. 467-497. In Taub F (ed.) Ecosystems of the World 23: Lakes and Reservoirs. Elsevier, New York.

Salinity in ppt (%) and ions in mg T1 (ppm). n/a - not available.

aFrom Hammer UT (1978) The saline lakes of Saskatchewan III: Chemical Composition. Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol. 63: 311-335. bFrom JF and Talling IB (1965) The chemical composition of African lake waters. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 50: 421-463.

cFrom Williams WD (1984) Chapter 20: Australian Saline Lakes. pp. 499-519. In Taub F (ed.) Ecosystems of the World 23: Lakes and Reservoirs. Elsevier, New York.

dFrom Livingstone DA and Melack JM (1984) Chapter 19: Lakes of Sub-Saharan Africa pp. 467-497. In Taub F (ed.) Ecosystems of the World 23: Lakes and Reservoirs. Elsevier, New York.

Table 3 Area, volume,

mean, and maximum depth of the 10 largest saline lakes in the world

Lake

Area (km2)

Volume (km3)

Mean depth (m)

Maximum depth (m)

Caspian

422 000

79 000

187

1072

Aral1

66 000*

1064*

16

69*

304{

37.8{

28 687**

17 160***

Balkash

22 000

122

6

27

Eyre, North2

7000

23

3

6

Issyk-kul

6300

1730

275

702

Urmia

~5000

25

5

16

Qinghai Hu

4600

85

17.5

27

Great Salt Lake

4400

19

4

10

Van

3600

191

53

550

Dead Sea

940

136

145

330

2When full. Sources: Williams WD (1996) The largest, highest and lowest lakes of the world: Saline lakes. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie 26: 61-79. Glazovsky NF (1995) The Aral Sea Basin. In: Kasperson J, Kasperson R, and Turner BL (eds.) Regions at Risk: Comparisons of and Threatened Environments. New York: United Nations University Press. Nikolyayeva RV (1969) The main morphological characteristics of the Aral Sea. The problems of the Aral Sea. pp 25-38. Moscow: Nauka. Jellison R, Zadareev YS, DasSarma PA, et al. (2004) Conservation and Management of Saline Lakes: A Review of Five Experience Briefs. http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads7S... Kes%20thematic%20Paper%2022Jun04.pdf.

2When full. Sources: Williams WD (1996) The largest, highest and lowest lakes of the world: Saline lakes. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie 26: 61-79. Glazovsky NF (1995) The Aral Sea Basin. In: Kasperson J, Kasperson R, and Turner BL (eds.) Regions at Risk: Comparisons of and Threatened Environments. New York: United Nations University Press. Nikolyayeva RV (1969) The main morphological characteristics of the Aral Sea. The problems of the Aral Sea. pp 25-38. Moscow: Nauka. Jellison R, Zadareev YS, DasSarma PA, et al. (2004) Conservation and Management of Saline Lakes: A Review of Five Experience Briefs. http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads7S... Kes%20thematic%20Paper%2022Jun04.pdf.

largest and most permanent saline lake is Mar Chiquita while one of the world's largest complexes of saline lakes, Salinas Grandes, is also located here. Other areas containing saline lakes include the Pantanal (southwestern Brazil), where round saline ox bow lakes are known locally as salinas, as well as along the eastern and southern coasts of Brazil and Chile, respectively.

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