Origins of Meromixis

The modes of origin of meromixis may also be classified, with the same kinds of caveats. (Note: To avoid creating new 'Type' designations in this chapter, and possibly adding confusion, we will use the same Roman numeral designations in the text and in Table 2 as in the 1975 usage of Walker and Likens. However, we are not including the Type II category of Walker and Likens. See Further Reading.)

Ectogenic Meromixis (Type I)

This type results when more dense, usually saline, water from an external source enters the waters of a less dense lake. The heavier inflowing water moves down into the deeper regions and forms a monimo-limnetic pool. This is how ectogenic meromixis is caused by salt water intrusions to low-lying coastal basins, as in Tessiarrsuk Lake in Labrador, Canada, and Lake Suigetsu, Japan. Ectogenic meromixis may also be initiated if fresher or less saline water flows over a more saline lake. A likely example of the latter is Soap Lake in Washington, USA. In either case, a chemocline develops as a barrier to complete vertical mixing and the deeper water quickly becomes anoxic. Of course, the chemical stratification may be eroded, even destroyed, by extensive inflows of fresh water or saline water, depending on the circumstances. Examples of water bodies with ectogenic meromixis are shown in Table 2.

Crenogenic Meromixis (Type III)

This condition develops when saline water enters a lake from (1) discrete springs within the basin, (2) lateral seepage from intersecting geological strata, or (3) some combination of (1) and (2). Two examples are Lake Kivu, Africa, and Junius Ponds 5 in New York, USA. Three European lakes once considered as classic examples of crenogenic meromixis, namely Lakes Girrotte (France), Ritom (Switzerland), and Ulmener Maar (Germany), appear to have lost their meromictic condition. Lakes Girrotte and Ritom were modified owing to the development of hydroelectric power, and Ulmener Maar was affected by the addition of water through a permanent tunnel from the nearby Jungfernweiher Reservoir and by wells, drilled to substantially below mean lake level, to provide 'bank-filtered' water for the Town of Ulmen.

Biogenic Meromixis (Type IV)

This type is biologically induced, and results from an accumulation in the bottom water of solutes from photosynthetic carbonate precipitation or from diffusion of chemicals from sediments. The density of the bottom water increases, and prevents the lake from mixing completely throughout the year. Two examples are Lake Mary, in northern Wisconsin, USA, and Devil's Bathtub, in New York, USA; others are listed in Table 2. Because the density differential in biogenic meromictic lakes is governed by 'home-grown' rather than 'imported' contributions of salts, the morpho-metric influence (depth relative to surface area) tends to be high. In Lake Mary, for example, the basin has a maximum depth of 21.5 m but a surface diameter of only about 100 m, and there is little opportunity for the wind to mix the deeper water. If Lake Mary were only 5 m deep, it is unlikely that biogenic meromixis would develop.

Cryogenic Meromixis (Type V)

This less familiar mode involves the effects of 'freezing-out' of salts and gases as the ice cover develops on a lake during winter, and is likely to be the genesis of meromixis in some polar lakes. As ions are separated during ice formation, relatively dense 'salt fingers' form below the ice and descend. More salts are expelled as the ice thickens, reinforcing the density differences between top and bottom waters. If the ionic ratios of both the upper and lower waters were similar, as is the case for Lakes Garrow and Sophia in the Canadian High Arctic, then meromixis by cryogenic means would be more likely than through episodic inputs of waters with different chemistries.

Table 2 List of worldwide water bodies exhibiting different types of meromixis

Region

Lake

Lat.

Long.

If Known..

Source

Area (ha)

Zm

Mean-m L (km)

masl

Type

NORTH

AMERICA

USA (States)

Alaska

Long

62°

57'

N

141° 52' W

3.2

3.2

515

III, IV

Likens, 1967

Nuwuk

71°

25'

N

156° 28' W

6

Ib, IV

Mohr eta/., 1967

Pingo

65°

40'

N

144° 20' W

2.4

8.8

206

III, Ia

Likens & Johnson, 1966

Redoubt

56°

54'

N

135° 15' W

1660

266

Ib, IV

McCoy, 1977

Rosetead

57°

29'

N

152° 27' W

McCoy, 1978

Vee Pond

62°

58'

N

141° 56' W

4.5

1.6

515

III, V

Likens, 1967

Florida

Beville's Pond

29°

35'

N

82° 20' W

>6

IV

Shannon & Brezonik, 1972

Deep

26°

03'

N

81° 23' W

0.7

30

IV

Hund, 1958

Lake 27

29°

35'

N

82° 20' W

7

IV?

Shannon & Brezonik, 1974

Mize

28°

40'

N

82° 11' W

0.9

25.3

IV?

Shannon & Brezonik, 1975

Hawaii

Kauhako (on Molokai)

21 °

11'

N

156° 57' W

0.35

248

~0.035

0

University of Hawaii, Dr. Alam web site

Maine

Basin Pond

44°

27'

N

70° 03' W

1.3

32.3

124

p.c., S. Cooper

Wellman Pond

44°

24'

N

69° 49' W

0.4

20.1

7.9 0.29

82

p.c., S. Cooper

Massachusetts

Mystic (Lower)

42°

25'

N

71° 08' W

36

24

8.3

0

I

Duval & Ludlam, 2001

Oyster Pond

41°

20'

W

70° 35' W

91

14

Walsh, in Carter, 1967

Michigan

Canyon

50°

00'

N

93° 35' W

264

IV

Smith, 1941

Forest

42°

35'

N

83° 18' W

26

18

4.3 0.53

277

p.c., P. Sawayko

Crystal falls

Fountain Pond Pit

46°

06'

N

88° 23' W

1.0

90

421

p.c,. W. Ziegler, MI-DNR

Hemlock

45°

11'

N

84° 24' W

1.98

18.6

8.6 0.164

271

Fast & Tyler, 1981

Sodon

42°

19

N

83° 17' W

2.3

17.7

569

IV

Newcombe & Slater, 1958

Turtle

42°

36'

N

83° 18' W

279

p.c., P. Sawayko

Walnut

42°

33'

N

83° 19' W

268

p.c., P. Sawayko

Minnesota

Arco

47°

09'

N

95° 10' W

1.4

10.2

IV

Baker & Brook, 1971

Brownie

44°

58'

N

93° 19' W

7.1

15.2

6.8

p.c., Sara Aplikowski

Budd

47°

10'

N

95° 10' W

2

10.8

IV

Baker & Brook, 1971

Deming

47°

10'

N

95° 11' W

5

17

IV

Baker & Brook, 1971

Josephine

47°

09'

N

95° 10' W

10.3

Baker & Brook, 1971

Lake of the Clouds

48°

8.5

'N

91° 6.7' W

12

31.0

IV?

Swain, 1973

Ely, MN

Miner's Pit

47°

54'

N

91° 51'W

55.9

47.8

2.54

388

Janzen, J. 2004. The diver's guide to Lake Wazee. Inland Sea Corp. Andover, MN 55304

Crosby, MN

Pennington Pit

46°

29'

N

93° 59' W

23.1

78.9

1.20

362

Janzen, J. 2004. The diver's guide to Lake Wazee. Inland

Sea Corp. Andover, MN 55305

Sea Corp. Andover, MN 55305

01 s

Continued to

Region

Lake

Lat.

Long.

Spring

45°

06'

N

93° 13'W

Squaw

47=

14'

N

95° 17'W

W. of Itasca

Tin Cup

Park

Montana

Berkeley Pit

46°

01'

N

112° 30'W

Nevada

Big Soda

39°

31'

N

118° 52'W

New Mexico

Cinder Cone

New York

Ballston

42°

55'

N

73° 52' W

Devil's Bathtub

43°

01'

N

77° 34' W

Green (Clarke Res.)

42°

59'

N

76° 05' W

Green (Fayettville)

43°

03'

N

78° 58' W

Junius Pond 5

42°

57'

N

76° 57' W

Round (Fayetteville)

43°

01'

N

76° 01'W

Rhode Island

Basin (U),

41 =

30'

N

71° 26'W

Pettaquamscutt R.

Basin (L),

41 =

30'

N

71° 27'W

Pettaquamscutt R.

South Dakota

Medicine

Washington

Blue

41 =

39'

N

119° 46'W

Hall, no longer

meromictic

Hot

48°

58'

N

119° 29'W

Soap (Grant Co.)

47=

23'

N

119° 30'W

Soap (Okanogan

48°

14'

N

119° 39'W

Co.)

Lenore, no longer

meromictic

Lower Goose

46°

57'

N

119° 17'W

Wannacut

58°

52'

N

119° 34'W

Cottage

47=

45'

N

122° 53'W

Langlois

47=

38'

N

121° 53'W

Wisconsin

Hell's Kitchen

46°

11'

N

89° 42' W

Knaack

44=

37'

N

88° 54' W

Mary

46°

04'

N

90° 09' W

Max 2

45°

16'

N

91° 21'W

Max 3

45°

16

N

91° 21'W

Scaffold

45°

57'

N

89° 38' W

Stewart's Dark

46°

18'

N

91° 27'W

Wausau Granite Pit

>12 2.19 2.1 Gaines & Pilson, 1972, L&O «

Area (ha)

Zm

Mean-m

L (km)

masl

Type

1.2

8.5

3.0

p.c., Sara Aplikowski

61.0

24.0

IV

Baker & Brezonik, 1971

p.c., E. Gorham

276

260

1.76

p.c., T. Duaime

161.6

64.5

26.2

2.0

1217

la

Kimmel etal., 1978, L&O

la

Bradbury, 1971

50-60

77

?

p.c., D. Rodbell, Geol. Dept.

Union College,

Schenectady, NY

0.7

14.3

0.011

IV, III

Stewart, 1997

3

15.5

5

III

Brunskill etal., 1969

25.8

52.5

28

1.141

127

IV, III

Brunskill etal., 1970

6.5

17.6

0.27

515

Pendl & Stewart, 1986

13.2

51

34

0.46

127

IV, III

Brunskill & Ludllum, 1969

12.5

0.71

2.1

Gaines & Pilson, 1972, L&O

44.3

19.4

1.3

543

1.3

3.25

1.1

594

339

27

7.5

1.3

327

62.6

17.5

8.8

384

21.8

28

4.8

1.03

259

166.6

48.8

17.1

3.2

563

7.5

29

2.8

19.2

503

1.1

22

7

264

1.2

21.5

7.7

0.125

6

329

8

329

7.9

9.1

497

0.7

8.8

4.3

<0.5

20.6

Hayden, 1972

la

Walker, 1974

p.c.,

Culver,

2006

la, III

Walker, 1974

la, III

Anderson, 1958, L&O

la

Walker, 1974

Walker, 1974

la

Walker, 1974

la

Walker, 1974

IV

T. Edmondson?

T. Edmondson?

p.c., D. Robertson &T. Kratz

IV

Parkin, Winfrey, & Brock, 1980

IV

Stewart etal., 1966

IV

Stewart etal., 1966

IV

Stewart etal., 1966

Manning & Juday, 1941

IV

Likens & Hasler, 1960

Crenogenic

Stewart etal., 1966

Wazee Mine

44=

17'

N

90° 43' W

59.1

Canada

(provinces)

British Columbia

Island Copper Mine

50°

36'

N

127° 28'W

171

Lyons

50°

57'

N

120° 07'W

35.7

Mahoney

49°

17'

N

119° 32'W

21.6

Nitinat

48°

42'

N

124° 50'W

2760

Powell

49°

53'

N

124° 32'W

Sakinaw

49°

38'

N

124° 02'W

~8

White

51°

22'

N

121° 53'W

99.6

Yellow

49°

10'

N

119° 45'W

32.3

Labrador

Tessiarsuk

56°

30'

N

61° 57'W

545

NW Territories

Baker

~65°

30'

N

95° W

Campbell

Sunday

Winton Bay

63°

24'

N

64° 39' W

Nunavut

L.Cornwallis le

Garrow

75°

24'

N

96° 47' W

0.043

Ellesmere Is.

Lake A

4.9

Ellesmere Is.

Lake B

0.9

Ellesmere Is.

Lake C

0.8

Baffin Is.

Ogac

65°

52'

N

67° 21'W

1.481

Cornwallis Is.

Sophia

75°

05'

N

93° 38' W

0.034

Ellesmere Is.

Tuberg

Ontario

Crawford

43°

28'

N

80° 57' W

5

ELA 120

49°

39'

N

93° 50' W

0.093

ELA 241

49°

40'

N

93° 33' W

0.018

Algonquin

Jake

48°

33'

N

78° 33' W

9

Park

Lake of the Hills

44=

45'

N

76° 33' W

Near Picton

Lake on the

Losing its

Mountain

meromixis

Little Round

44=

47'

N

76° 41'W

7.39

Near Picton

Loon

46°

09'

N

81° 40'W

6.5

Near

McGinnis

Peterborough

In Ottawa

Mckay

7.43

Near Aurora

Simeon

W. of

Sunfish

43°

28'

N

80° 38' W

8

Waterloo

Quebec

Bedard

47=

16'

N

71° 07'W

4

Green

46°

11'

N

76° 19'W

20

Pinks

45°

30'

N

76° 00' W

12

104

297

p.c., D. Robertson

350

2.1

8?

Pietersefa/., 2003

12

4.8

1.6

686

IV

Northcote & Halsey, 1969

18.9

7.2

0.9

472

IV

Northcote & Halsey, 1969

205

99.6

23

0

lb

Richards ei a/., 1965

358

50

56

lb

Williams ei a/., 1961

140

43

>8

lb

Northcote & Johnson, 1964

15

4.6

2.4

1037

IV, III

Northcote & Halsey, 1969

40

20.5

1.9

750

Northcote & Halsey, 1969

654

24.5

0

lb

Carter, 1965

Johnson, 1964

Richie etal., 1976

Johnson, 1964

Carter, 1967

49

22.9

3.2

6.7

Stewart & Platford, 1986

57

3.3

Ectogenic

Hattersley-Smithefa/., 1970

40

23

Hattersley-Smithefa/., 1970

57

2.3

Ectogenic

Hattersley-Smithefa/., 1970

60.5

23.2

2

lb

McLaren, 1963

50

22.4

4.8

Stewart & Platford, 1986

Hattersley-Smithefa/., 1970

23.5

0.272

IV

McAndrews ef a/., 1973

19

7.6

IV

Brunskill & Schindler, 1971

12.5

5.5

IV

Brunskill & Schindler, 1971

13

Smol, 1979

18.5

p.c., McNeely, 1979

p.c., McNeely, 2007

16.8

8.3

0.425

201

McNeely, 1974

33

p.c., Davis at Queen's

University

p.c., M. Dickman, 1979

10.9

0.37

150

p.c., McNeely, 2001

p.c., M. Dickman, 1979

20

10.4

0.551

365

IV

Duthie & Carter, 1970

10

Bernard & Lagueux, 1970

25

IV

Dickman etal., 1971

20

0.78

163

lb, IV

Dickman etal., 1975

Continued

Region

Lake

Lat.

Long.

Saskatchewan

Greenland Mexico and

Cuba Mexico, Nayarit Cuba

Waldsea Dead Moose Sayer Arthur Marie

Isabela Crater L, Valle-de-San-Juan

52° 17' N 52° 19' N 52° 24' N 52° 34' N 52° 31' N

105° 12'W 105° 10'W 105° 24'W 105° 26'W 105° 29'W

Central America, Carribean, & Galapagos Guatemala

Panama

Bahamas

Galapagos Genovesa Is. Isabela Is. Isabela Is. SOUTH AMERICA & ANTARCTICA South

America (?) Antarctica Vestfold Hills Ross Is. Taylor Valley Vesfold Hills Taylor Valley Taylor Valley Deception Is. Victoria Land

Encantada, El Salto Eckixil, Peten Juleque, Peten Lago de Peten Macanche, Peten Paxcamen, Peten Third Lock, Canal Zone, post Canal Devil's Hole, Abaco Is.

Arcturus Pond 2 Pond 3

Algal

Bonney

Clear

Fryxell

Hoare

I rizar

Joyce

78° 11' E 166° 24' E 162° 26' E 78° 95' E 163° 35' E 162° 53' E

If Known..

?

Source

Area (ha)

Zm

Mean-m

L (km)

mas!

Type

464

14.3

8.1

3.71

532

la

Hammer etat., 1978

1000

48.0

6

5.54

532

la

Hammer etat., 1978

204

5.1

~2.7

1.95

~545

la

Hammer etat., 1978

250

5.6

3.90

540

la

Hammer etat., 1978

160

3.1

~1.7

1.70

~ 530

la

Hammer etat., 1978

~5.7

17.5

0.27

7

Alcoceref a/., 1998.

0.1

25

9

1b

Romanenko et al., 1976;

Straskraba etal., 1967

14

Brezonic & Fox, 1974

21

Brezonic & Fox, 1974

25.5

Brezonic & Fox, 1974

32

Brezonic & Fox, 1974

>40

Brezonic & Fox, 1974

30

Brezonic & Fox, 1974

Boznaikef al., 1969

50

Goehle & Storr, 1978

20

30

0.5

IV

Howmiller, 1969

0.12

2.5

0.06

la

Howmiller, 1969

0.1

0.05

la

Howmiller, 1969

01 3

01 ff

23 Hand & Burton, 1981

55 Hand & Burton, 1981

18 18 la, V Walker & Likens, 1975

34 58 Wharton eta/., 1986

Victoria Land Lutzou-Holm

Bay Ross Is. Victoria Land Taylor Valley Victoria Land

EUROPE Austria

Finland

Aland Is. Aland Is. Aland Is. Aland Is. Nauvo Is. France

Germany

Miers Nurume

Skua Trough Vanda Vida

Vostoc & many other 'still liquid' lakes deep within the Antartic ice. Meromixis possible but not known

Vargsundet Langsjon

Vastra Kyrksundet Ostra Kyrksundet Vasterhol marna Girotte, no longer meromictic Pavin

Hemmelsdorfersee and Ulmener Maar, both no longer meromictic

Goggausee

46°

30'

N

14=

09'

E

215

Hallstattersee

47=

35'

N

13°

39'

E

2

Klopinersee

46°

38'

N

14=

35'

E

130

Krottensee

47=

45'

N

13°

35'

E

82

Langsee

46°

30'

N

14=

17'

E

9

Lahngangsee

47=

46'

N

13°

37'

E

80

Millstattersee

46°

45'

N

13°

37'

E

34

Piburger

13.4

Toplitzee

47=

39'

N

13°

56'

E

660

Weissensee

46°

43'

N

13°

20'

E

1940

Worthersee

46°

37'

N

14=

10'

E

640

Zellersee

47=

19'

N

12°

52'

E

6.4

Hannisenlampi

62°

05'

N

30°

12'

E

0.2

Laukunlampi

62°

40'

N

29°

10'

E

8.8

Lovojarvi

60°

05'

N

25°

02'

E

~5.1

Vaha-Pitkusta

60°

54'

N

23°

39'

E

1.1

Valkiajarvi

61°

54'

N

23°

53'

E

7.8

Horkkajarvi

61°

13'

N

25°

10'

E

>15 Burton, 1981

0.75 0.22 0.07 <23 IV, V Waker & Likens, 1975

12.8

6

0.1

770

IV

Loffler,

1975

125

65

508

IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

26

30

448

IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

47

26

579

IV

Anon. 1987 Austrian Report

21

11

543

II, IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

77

33

1555

III

Walker & Likens,

1975

140

86

530

IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

25

0.8

915

Findenegg, 1968

106

62

718

III

Walker & Likens, 1975

99

36

930

IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

84

43

439

IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

68

39

IV

Walker & Likens,

1975

16

5.2

Hakala,

2004

27

6.3

84

Hakala,

2004

17.5

7.7

108

Hakala,

2004

35

12

0.50

93

Hakala,

2004

25

8.4

0.58

110

III, IV

Hakala,

2004

13

7

0.60

Hakala,

2004

35

5.00

Hakala,

2005

18

4.50

Hakala,

2006

18

2.50

Hakala,

2007

22

4.00

Hakala,

2008

8

Hakala,

2009

92.1

0.76

1198

III, IV

Stewart & Hollan, 1975

Stewart & Hollan, 1975

ai ff

Continued oo w

Region Lake Lat. Long.

Goitsche Mine

Meresburg-Ost-1b

Mine

Greenland

Saleso

77°

03'

N

20° 35' W

Italy

Lugano

45°

59'

N

8° 58' W

Sicily Is.

Faro

38°

16'

N

15° 38'W

Norway

Aurtjern

60°

14'

N

11° 08' E

Bakketjern

60°

12'

N

11° 09' E

Blankvatn

Botnvatn

67°

N

Gravtjern

60°

12'

N

11° 14' E

Kyllaren

61°

25'

N

5° 10' E

Spitsbergen

Kongressvatn

78°

01'

N

13° 59' E

Ljogottjern

60°

09'

N

11° 09' E

Maena

Nordbytjern

60°

09'

N

11° 10' E

Rorhopvatn

W. Norway

Saelenvannet

Skjennungen

60°

00'

N

10° 41' E

Skratjern

60°

12'

N

11° 09' E

Store Aaklungen

60°

00'

N

10° 44' E

Svinsjoen

Tokke

59°

35'

N

8° 00' E

Transjoen

60°

13'

N

11° 08' E

Traunsee

47=

50'

N

13° 40' E

Vesle Bakleetjern

60°

12'

N

11° 09' E

Vilbergtjern

60°

11'

N

11° 10' E

Poland

Czarne (N. Poland)

Zakrzwek Pit

Spain

Banyoles

42°

7"

N

2° 45' E

Cibollar

El Tobar

La Cruz

Vilar

Sweden

Ravlidmyran Pit

Switzerland

Ritom, no longer

Source

Source

Area (ha)

Zm

Mean-m L (km)

mas1

Type

13.3

47

Crenogenic

Boehrer & Schultze, 2006

2.8

36

Crenogenic

Boehrer & Schultze, 2006

112

Ectogenic

Hutchinson, 1957

2750

288

271

Ectogenic

21.2

21

0.56

Ectogenic

Truper & Genovese, 1968,

L&O, 13: 225-232

16.5

III, IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

9.5

14.5

III, IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

3

55

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

113

lb

Walker & Likens, 1975

10.00

7

III, IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

29

Breugel, Y. et al., 2005

82.00

52

1.0

94

Boyum etal., 1970

20.00

17

III, IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

34

39

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

1330

23.5

III, IV

Hongve, 1974

41

92

3

lb

Walker & Likens, 1975

Boersheim, K.Y. etal., 1985,

W. Norway

3.4

17.8

8.3

418

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

2

12.5

III, IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

13.2

32.5

8.4

293

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

11

33

180

III, IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

147.5

60

lb

Strom, 1957

9.4

22

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

2560

197

90

422

III

Walker & Likens, 1975

0.3

10.5

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

2.4

17.1

IV

Walker & Likens, 1975

Golebiowskaetal., 2005

2.1

32

Ectogenic

Slusarczky, 2003

106

30

Garcia-Gil eta/., 1996

4.0

8.25

3.3

Ectogenic

Reviriego etal., 1993

67.3

19.5

8.21 1.48

1250

Crenogenic

Vicente etal., 1993

23.5

9 ~0.13

Biogenic

Rodrigoeia/., 1993

1.11

10

0.17

Ectogenic

Garcia-Gil & Figueras, 1993

29

Boehrer & Schultze, 2006

AFRICA Cameroon

Dem.Rep. of

Congo Ghana

Kenya

South Africa Tanzania

Uganda

RUSSIA Azerbaijan

Somewhere in

USSR Vladimir Dist. Middle Volga Middle Volga Middle Volga Middle Volga Kildin Is.

Ukraine SSR

Petrozavodsk Dist.

AUSTRALIA, TASMANIA, NEW GUINEA Australia, W. Australia, W. Australia, W. Australia, Victoria

Monoun

Nyos

Kivu

237 000

Bossumpti

Bogonia Swartvlei Malawi Tanganyika

(Probably not meromictic. Lake does mix but stays anoxic)

Nkugute

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