where T is the period of rotation of the earth (1 day or 86 400 s), d is the latitude, and the units of f are radians per second. This parameter is zero at the equator (meaning that the effects of the earth's rotation on internal waves and currents can be ignored at the equator), and reaches a maximum value at the poles. The inertial period is defined as

which is infinite at the equator, and has a minimum value of 12 h at the poles. We also define the Rossby radius of deformation c

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