Primary producers -Phytoplankton Bacterioplankton


Figure 5 Illustration of a typical lake food web including nine groups of organisms (phytoplankton, bacterioplankton, benthic algae, macrophytes, herbivorous zooplankton, predatory zooplankton, zoobenthos, prey fish and predatory fish).


Calibration - Adjustment of variables within a model in order to achieve minimum bias.

Effect-load-sensitivity model - A quantitative model that uses information on mass balance of nutrients or toxins to predict important bioindicators such as fish production or algal biomass.

Food-web model - A model whose main objective is to predict the interactions of primary producers, herbivores, and carnivores within a lake ecosystem.

Generic variable - A rate or quantity used in modeling that is typical of most ecosystems or of a group of ecosystems.

Modeling scale - Resolution of a model expressed in terms of dimensions of time or space.

Site-specific variable - A rate or quantity used in modeling that is unique to a particular ecosystem.

Validation - Use of information not used in a model calibration to determine whether the calibration has been successful.

See also: Ecological Zonation in Lakes; Eutrophication of Lakes and Reservoirs.

Further Reading

Hakanson L and Peters RH (1995) Predictive Limnology - Methods for Predictive Modelling. Amsterdam: SPB Academic Publishers. p. 464.

Hakanson L (2000) Modelling Radiocesium in Lakes and Coastal Areas - New Approaches for Ecosystem Modellers. A Textbook with Internet Support. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. p. 215.

Hakanson L and Boulion V (2002) The Lake Foodweb - Modelling Predation and Abiotic/Biotic Interactions. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers. p. 344.

Monte L (1996) Collective models in environmental science. Science of the Total Environment 192: 41-47.

Odum EP (1971) Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd edn. p. 574 Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. p. 574.

OECD (1982) Eutrophication of waters. Monitoring, assessment and control. Paris: OECD. p. 154.

Vollenweider RA (1968) The scientific basis oflake eutrophication, with particular reference to phosphorus and nitrogen as eutrophication factors. Tech. Rep. DAS/DSI/68.27. Paris: OECD. p. 159.

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