The functioning of shallow water bodies is, as described above, strongly affected by the presence of aquatic plants and the fish structure. Aquatic plants exert multiple effects on the structure and functioning of shallow lakes and ponds. They affect the communities that live permanently or temporarily in the littoral area, through a series of physical, chemical and behaviorally-mediated processes. The structure of the fish community can, in turn, affect the lake functioning in contrasting ways than the plants. Fish, due to their mobility and flexible feeding behavior, link the littoral, benthic, and pelagic habitats very significantly and thereby affect the nutrient transport and predator-prey interactions in the littoral and the pelagial.
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