Contaminants of Concern

The contaminants of most concern are nutrients and pathogens. The pathogens of most concern are Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Campylobacter, and viruses. The expansion of dairying and beef production in

Figure 8 Lake Ellesmere, east coast of South Island, New Zealand. Note the Selwyn River inflow (left), the sand barrier separating the lake from the ocean to the east (top) and the encroachment of farmland to the lake edge (bottom), as well as the highly turbid nature of the lake. (Photo: Alex Hamilton.)

Figure 8 Lake Ellesmere, east coast of South Island, New Zealand. Note the Selwyn River inflow (left), the sand barrier separating the lake from the ocean to the east (top) and the encroachment of farmland to the lake edge (bottom), as well as the highly turbid nature of the lake. (Photo: Alex Hamilton.)

reservoir catchments has been a major concern because Cryptosporidium parvum is cross infectious between cattle and humans. In Australia, Cryptospo-ridiosis attributable to contamination of urban water supplies has not been documented. The number of notified Campylobacteriosis cases has increased steadily in New Zealand from 100 in 1980 to 12 000 by 2002. New Zealand also has higher rates of notified Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis than other developed countries.

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