Ecological Zonation in Lakes

Three Ecological Zones Lakes

W M Lewis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Lakes show many kinds of spatial variation in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Variation can be chemical, physical, or biotic, and is important to the understanding of ecosystem functions. Although some types of variation are unique to specific classes of lakes, others are common to most lakes, and correspond to an obvious spatial organization of the biota in lakes. The existence of certain...

Definition of Shallow Lakes and Ponds and World Distribution

Shallow Lakes Ecosystem

Shallow lakes and ponds are the most abundant lake types in the global landscape. They provide a myriad of ecosystemic and social services as well as goods and materials, while having great conservation value (for example for migratory birds). Such shallow systems usually occur in lowland areas, many in association to seasonal changes in the flood regimes of rivers. The origin of many of these systems can also be related to geological disturbances, such as glacial movements or other processes...

Global Distribution of Reservoirs

Stone Fish World Distribution

There are nearly 50 000 dams in the world with heights above 15 m- defined as large dams - and an almost innumerable number of small dams built for farm ponds and other tiny impoundments. These dams can retain > 6500 km3 of water, which represents > 15 of the annual global runoff (Figure 1). The area of former terrestrial habitat inundated by all large (> 108 m3) reservoirs in the world is comparable to the area of California or France. The environmental values that were lost as a result...