The most common type of biofuel is bioethanol, made by fermentation and distillation of sugar and starch. No engine modifications are needed in cars for blends of petrol and 10 percent ethanol. In the US the main feedstock is corn, in the EU sugar beet, feed wheat and barley, while in Brazil it is sugarcane.
While biodiesel makes up only 5 percent of biofuel production it is important in Europe where diesel is in increasingly short supply and where increasing the diesel/gasoline ratio is costly for refineries. Biodiesel is made mainly from rapeseed in Europe and soybeans in the US. Figures 6.1a and 6.1b show the regional sources of ethanol and biodiesel production in 2006.
The above biofuels are conventional or first generation types. The so-called second generation biofuels are made from any kind of biomass, including for example forest or crop residues, which are generally cheaper sources than dedicated energy crops. The principal advantage of second generation biofuels is the saving on fossil fuels in their production. The substitution of corn ethanol for fossil fuels requires, on average, 19 percent less fossil fuels than burning gasoline.21 In contrast, using ethanol from cellulose, such as straw and hybrid poplar, substitutes
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Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.