The Role Of Forestry In Complying With Targets

Separate rules for GHG emissions and removals from the atmosphere have been designed under the Kyoto Protocol for land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities because of their unique characteristics. LULUCF can remove CO2 from the atmosphere but the removal can also be reversed to emit an equal amount. This contrasts with the reduction achieved by a cut in the use of fossil fuels, where the cut can be more confidently said to remain permanent. The removals and emissions of CO2 by forests may take place over many years, and moreover removals are difficult to measure compared with the instantaneous emissions from burning, or the saving of emissions from not burning, fossil fuels.

It is mandatory for Annex I parties to account for removals by sinks 'afforestation' and 'reforestation' and for emissions by deforestation activities. Planting or natural regeneration of forests on land that did not contain forestry on 31 December 1989 is reforestation, and on land that has not contained forest for 50 years is afforestation (United Nations, 1998: Article 3.3). Removal units (RMUs), achieved by afforestation and reforestation (A/R), are equal to 1 tonne of CO2e.3 Countries must credit or debit their assigned amounts during the first commitment period of 2008 to 2012 with any increase or decrease in carbon resulting from afforestation and reforestation (A/R) activities, while the recording of the increase from deforestation is optional.

Additional LULUCF activities such as cropland management, grazing land management, revegetation and forest management may be accounted for voluntarily in the first commitment period, 2008-2012. The choice of activities, which must have occurred since the beginning of 1990, had to be made before the commencement of the commitment period (United Nations, 1998: Article 3.4). Once a party has elected to include any or all of these activities in its inventory, reporting is mandatory throughout the first commitment period.4

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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