Steps in the Cycle

Project design documents (PDDs) contain the key information on the potential for removal of CO2e, against an approved, or developed for

Source: After Neeff et al. (2007: Figure 1).

Figure 2.4 The forestry project cycle in the CDM

Source: After Neeff et al. (2007: Figure 1).

Figure 2.4 The forestry project cycle in the CDM

approval, scientific baseline methodology. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts, together with local stakeholder comments, are also required.

An Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement can be signed at any stage, but an early agreement is necessary if the project requires seed capital.

The Designated Operating Entity (DOE) must be in possession of a Letter of Approval (LoA) from the host country's Designated National Authority (DNA) before it can validate the project. Host country approval and project validation by the DOE often proceed in tandem. A list of DOEs can be found in UNEP Risoe (2008b). Validation is required of the following:

• methodology and its application to establishing a baseline;

• sustainable development objectives;

• that CO2e removals every five years do not coincide with peaks before harvesting in the case of plantations;

• that non-permanence is addressed.

The PDD is made public on the Internet and comments are received for 45 days before the DOE validates the project. The validation report and PDD are submitted to the Executive Board (EB) for Registration.

Monitoring needs to be conducted according to the project's Monitoring Plan. It provides data on the biomass through tree growth and losses from thinning, pruning and harvesting.

Verification is an audit every five years by a DOE (except for the first verification which is decided by the proponent) different from the validating DOE of monitoring and project implementation, demonstrating that:

• implementation is according to PDD;

• carbon claims are based on approved baseline and monitoring calculation procedures;

• sustainable development indicators meet the project targets.

The Verification report is submitted to the EB and made public. Certification follows, which is a statement of CERs generated in accordance with the rules of the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, the EB issues the CERs (unless the EB decides to review the project), less 2 percent, which goes towards an adaptation fund for countries most affected by climate change.

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