Caparros and Jacquemont (2003) expected that the creation of economic incentives for carbon sequestration by afforestation and reforestation, such as under the Kyoto Protocol, will yield a sub-optimal result of over-planting of fast-growing alien species with a potential negative impact on biodiversity: 'The Convention on Biological Diversity lacks economic incentives which would ensure that agents will follow the optimal social strategy whereas the Kyoto protocol creates economic incentives' (Caparros and Jacquemont, 2003: 155).
Studies suggest that while fauna may be sighted in pure stands of trees, they are less likely to be species that depend on rainforest habitat and, when they are, their presence is related to nearby remnant native forest (Barlow et al., 2007; Catterall and Harrison, 2006; Lindenmayer and
Fischer, 2006). Both on-site and off-site (for example water quality) biodiversity values are considerably greater for environmental plantings than for hoop pine monoculture (Kanowski et al., 2005).
The sections below test the positive and negative contributions of forestry schemes to biodiversity; the next section examining the design features of forestry offsets, both in regulatory and voluntary schemes, is followed by a review of the activities designed to reduce deforestation and degradation (REDD).
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