Afforestation and Reforestations the Only Options in the CDM

In the first commitment period the role of non-Annex B countries under the CDM has been limited to A/R. The Marrakesh Accords also placed limitations on the amount of credits claimable by Annex B Parties to 1 percent times 5 of their 1990 emissions (or 5 percent of their 1990 emissions for the period 2008-2012) (UNEP Risoe, 2008a; UNFCCC, 2006b). Under the CDM, A/R projects are restricted to those that would not have occurred without CDM financing and to areas that were not forested prior to 1990. Negotiations on how to treat sources and sinks in the CDM continued until rules governing sinks were finally agreed at COP 9, in Milan, in 2003. Meanwhile, Canada had proposed insurance and protected status for forestry projects to solve the permanence issue, while Colombia had proposed that carbon credits would expire when carbon is readmitted from the atmosphere. In the Colombian proposal the holding country would need to increase carbon emissions by that amount in its national inventory or buy the same number of credits from another forestry country (Boyd et al., 2008). In the end parties agreed, at COP 9, that forestry CERs would be either temporary (tCERs) or permanent (lCERs).

TCERs cannot be carried over to the next commitment period and must be replaced at the end of five years. LCERs are for a maximum of 60 years and then need to be replaced by non-forestry CERs. When the certification report indicates a reversal since the last certification of net removals of CO2e by the lCER sink, an equivalent quantity of lCERs needs to be replaced.

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Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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