Water Quality Based Limitations

In the United States, as control of conventional pollutants has been significantly achieved, increased emphasis is being placed on reduction of toxic pollutants. The EPA has developed a water quality based approach to achieve desired water quality where treatment control based discharge limits have proved to be insufficient [22]. The procedure for establishing effluent limitations for point sources discharging to a water quality based segment generally involves the use of some type of mathematical model or allocation procedure to apportion the allowable

Table 14 Industrial Waste Pretreatment Limits for a Publicly Owned Treatment Works

Toxic substance

Max. allowable concentration (mg/L)

Aldehyde

5.0

Antimony

5.0

Arsenic

1.0

Barium

5.0

Beryllium

1.0

Boron

1.0

Cadmium

0.7

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, including but not limited to pesticides,

Trace

herbicides, algaecides

Chromium, total

1.0

Copper

2.7

Cyanides

1.0

Fluorides

10.0

Formaldehydes

5.0

Lead

0.4

Manganese

0.5

Mercury

0.010

Methyl ethyl ketone and other water insoluble ketones

5.0

Nickel

2.6

Phenol and derivatives

30.0

Selenium

2.0

Silver

0.7

Sulfides

1.0

Toluene

5.0

Xylene

5.0

Zinc

2.6

pH, su

5.0 to 10.5

SU=standard unit

Source: From City of San Jose, CA, Municipal Code, 1988.

SU=standard unit

Source: From City of San Jose, CA, Municipal Code, 1988.

loading of a particular toxicant to each discharge in the segment. These allocations are generally made by the state regulatory agency [20].

State and regional regulatory agencies may also establish general effluent limitations for a particular water body to control the total discharge of toxic pollutants. Table 15 shows the discharge limits for toxic pollutants established by the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Board (1986).

This agency has also adopted biomonitoring and toxicity requirements for municipal and industrial dischargers. Biomonitoring, or whole-effluent toxicity testing, has become a requirement for many discharges in the United States. As of 1988, more than 6000 discharge permits have toxicity limits to protect against chronic toxicity [22]. When a discharge exceeds the toxicity limits, the discharger must conduct a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and a toxicity reduction evaluation (TRE). A TRE is a site-specific investigation of the effluent to identify the causative toxicants that may be eliminated or reduced, or treatment methods that can reduce effluent toxicity.

4.5 CONTROL AND TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR OILFIELD WASTES

Major waste liquids arising from oil and gas production include produced water and drilling fluids and muds. These waste streams are handled and disposed of separately.

4.5.1 Produced Water Treatment and Disposal

Produced water (brine) disposal practices may be divided into the broad categories of surface discharge, subsurface discharge, evaporation, and reuse. Approximately 30 states produce some amount of oil or gas, and brine handling practises vary considerably because of variations in climate, geology, brine quantity and quality, and regulatory framework [23].

Table 15 Effluent Limitations for Selected Toxic Pollutants for Discharge to Surface Waters (All Values in yg/L)

_Daily average_

Shallow water__Deep water

Table 15 Effluent Limitations for Selected Toxic Pollutants for Discharge to Surface Waters (All Values in yg/L)

Shallow water__Deep water

Arsenic

20

200

Cadmium

10

30

Chromium (VI)

11

110

Copper

20

200

Cyanide

25

25

Lead

5.6

56

Mercury

1

1

Nickel

7.1

71

Silver

2.3

23

Zinc

58

580

Phenols

500

500

PAHs

15

150

PAHs=Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Source: From Water Quality Control Plan, San Francisco Bay Basin, 1986.

PAHs=Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

Source: From Water Quality Control Plan, San Francisco Bay Basin, 1986.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Trash Cash Machine

Trash Cash Machine

How recyclable trash can save the world and bank us huge profits! Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Recycling! This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To How To Make Profits With Trash!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment