A laboratory-scale treatability study was conducted for the Mississippi Chemical Corporation to develop a physicochemical wastewater treatment process for a fertilizer complex wastewater to control nitrogen, phosphorus, and fluoride and to recover ammonia [2,33]. The removal technique investigated consisted of precipitation of fluorides, phosphorus, and silica by lime addition, a second stage required for the precipitation of ammonia by the use of phosphoric acid and magnesium, and a third stage for further polishing of the wastewater necessary to remove residual phosphate. The wastewater quality parameters included the following concentrations: fluoride 2000 mg/L, ammonia 600 mg/L, phosphorus as P2O5 (P) 145 mg/L [50], and an acidic pH level of 3.5. Ammonia removals of 96% were achieved and the insoluble struvite complex produced by the ammonia removal stage is a potentially commercial-grade fertilizer product, whereas the fluoride and phosphorus in the effluent fell below 25 and 2 mg/L, respectively.

The multistage treatment approach was to first remove the fluorides by lime precipitation, with the optimum removal (over 99%) occurring with a two-step pH adjustment to about 10.4 (removal was more a function of lime dosage, rather than a pH solubility controlled phenomenon). Each step was followed by clarification, and the required lime equivalent dosage was 180% of the calcium required stoichiometrically. The effluent from the first stage had an average fluoride content of 135 mg/L (93% removal) and a phosphorus content of less than 5 mg/L, whereas the hydraulic design parameters were a 15 mm per stage reaction time

Sojourner Truth Timeline
Figure 14 Example of environmentally balanced industrial complex (EBIC) centered about a steel mill plant (from Ref. 24).
Figure 15 Example of an environmentally balanced industrial complex with a phosphate fertilizer plant as the focus industry (from Ref. 24).

and a 990 gpd/ft2 (40.3 m3/m2/day) clarifier overflow rate. The resulting precipitated solids underflow concentration was 7.7% by weight.

The second-stage (ammonia removal) effluent contained unacceptable levels of F and P and had to be subjected to third-stage lime treatment. This raises the pH from 8.5 to 11.4 and produces an effluent with concentrations of F and P equal to 25 and 2 mg/L, respectively. The hydraulic design parameters were a 15 min reaction time and a 265 gpd/ft2 (10.8 m3/m2/day) clarifier overflow rate. The resulting precipitated solids underflow concentration was 0.6% by wt. In all three stages, an anionic polymer was used to aid coagulation, solids settling, and effluent clarification.

The solids resulting from the first- and third-stage treatment consisted of calcium fluoride, calcium phosphate, and fluorapatite-type compounds. Typically, in the fertilizer industry, such sludges are disposed of by lagooning and subsequent landfilling. Other studies have investigated the recovery of the fluoride compounds, such as hydrofluoric and fluorosilisic acids, for use in the glass industry and in the fluoridation of drinking water supplies.

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