Wastewater Sources

In pesticide formulating/packaging plants, wastewaters can be generated at several sources, including the following [8]:

• formulation equipment cleanup;

• air pollution control devices;

• laboratory drains.

Sources Industrial Waste Water
Figure 6 Dry formulation unit. Technical grade products are ground and mixed with appropriate inert materials; the premixed material is further blended with more inert materials and wetting agents in several steps to obtain the correct particle size (from Ref. 8).

The major source of contaminated wastewater from formulation plants is equipment cleanup. Formulation lines, including filling equipment, must be cleaned periodically to prevent cross-contamination of product. Sometimes equipment is washed with formula solvent and rinsed with water. Hence, this waste may contain pesticide ingredients as well as solvents.

For housekeeping purposes, most formulators clean buildings that house formulation units on a routine basis. Prior to washdown, as much dust, dirt, and so on as possible is swept and vacuumed. The washdown wastewater, which generally contains pesticide ingredients, is normally contained within the building and is disposed of in whatever manner is used for other contaminated wastewater.

A few formulation plants process used pesticide drums so they can be sold to a drum reconditioner or reused by the formulator for appropriate products, or simply to decontaminate the drums before they are disposed of. Drum-washing procedures range from a single rinse with a small volume of caustic solution or water to complete decontamination and reconditioning processes. Hence, drum-washing wastewater usually contains caustic solution as well as washed pesticide ingredients in the drums.

Water-scrubbing devices are often used to control emission to the air. Most of these devices generate wastewater streams that are potentially contaminated with pesticide ingredients. Although the quantity of water in the system is high—about 20 gallons per 1000 cfm—water consumption is kept low by a recycle-sludge removal system.

Natural runoff at formulating/packaging plants, if not properly handled, can become a major factor in the operation of wastewater systems simply because of the relatively high flow and because normal plant wastewater volumes are generally extremely low. Isolation of runoff from contaminated process areas or wastewaters, however, eliminates its potential for becoming significantly contaminated with pesticide ingredients. Hence, the content of area runoff depends on the degree of weather protection and area isolation. Modern stormwater pollution prevention regulations in the United States have virtually eliminated this pollution source.

Most of the larger formulation plants have some type of control laboratory on site. Wastewater from the control laboratories relative to the production operations can range from an insignificantly small, slightly contaminated stream to a rather concentrated source of contamination. In many cases, this stream can be discharged into the sanitary sewer. Larger, more highly contaminated streams, however, must be treated along with other contaminated wastewaters.

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