Table 8 Classification of Effluents Based on Toxicity Assessment

Level of toxicity Toxic unit Multiplying coefficient

Low toxicity Moderate toxicity High toxicity Extremely high toxicity

Figure 7 Wastewater classification on the basis of toxicological results (data analysis of 13 Russian regions).

Gelashvilly et al. [208] showed distribution of toxic input on the basis of types of industrial wastewaters for the Nizhni Novgorod region (Fig. 8). Toxicological contribution of different industrial wastewaters on recipient water bodies was calculated using the following equation: T=TU-Q-t

Table 9 Toxicity Control of the Wastewaters Discharged into Recipient Water Bodies (Tatarstan Region, Russia)

Source of Capacity of Volume of natural water for Name of the industrial discharge in decreasing acute toxicity of recipient river

Table 9 Toxicity Control of the Wastewaters Discharged into Recipient Water Bodies (Tatarstan Region, Russia)

discharge

TUa

m3/day

discharge (m3/day)

Kazan municipal

1.3

572,000

743,600 Volga

treatment plant

Zainsk municipal

3.75

8,000

30,000 Zai

treatment plant

Hennery "Yudinski"

12

240

2,880 Volga

Milk plant (Sabinsk)

7.2

280

2,016 Sabinka

Alcagol distilling

1

1,895

1,895 Kazanka

plant (Usadi)

Optic-mechanical

6

253.44

1,774.1 Kazanka

plant

Milk plant (Arsk)

6

200

1,200 Kazanka

Hennery (Laishevo)

1

800

800 Pond

Municipal treatment

1

700

700 Miesha

plant (Pestresi)

Sanatorium

4

150

600 Kazanka

"Krutushka"

Agricultural firm

1

400

400 Kazanka

"Serp i Molot"

Municipal treatment

1

300

300 Kama

plant (Laishevo)

Building plant

1

250

Kazan tuberculosis 1.5 90 135Kazanka hospital

Sanatorium 1 90 90 Volga

"Vasilievo"

Nutritive plant 1 15 15 Kama

(Laishevo)

Figure 8 Toxic contribution of the different industrial wastewaters to the recipient water bodies of the Nizhni Novgorod region.

where T is toxicological load on the water body in m3/year, TU is acute toxicity results of the most sensitive tests, Q is capacity of industrial discharge in m3, and t is period of time (year).

The average toxicity of wastewaters decreased more than four-fold in the Nizhni Novgorod region as a result of the economic mechanism of tax collection.

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