Table 3 Examples of Combinations of Different Treatments

Combination of treatments

Example of combination

Physical and biotechnological treatment

Chemical and biotechnological aerobic treatment

• Thermal pretreatment of waste can enhance the biodegradability of hazardous substance.

• Homogenization/suspension of solid wastes or nondissolved sludges in water will increase the surface of the waste particles and, as result of this, the rate of biodegradation will also be increased.

• Preliminary chemical oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons by H2O2 or ozone will improve the biodegradability of these hazardous substances because of the cleavage of aromatic rings.

Biotechnological and chemical treatment

Physico-chemical and biotechnological treatment

Biotechnological anaerobic and aerobic treatment

• Reduction of Fe(III) from nondissolved iron hydroxides will produce dissolved Fe(II) ions, which can be used for the precipitation of organic acids or cyanides.

• Preliminary washing of wastes polluted by hydrophobic substances by water or solution of surfactants will remove these molecules from the waste; thus, the hydrophobic substances of suspension will be degraded faster than if attached to the particles of hazardous waste.

• Anaerobic treatment will perform anaerobic dechlorination of hazardous substances; it will enhance following aerobic treatment.

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