Table 24 Energy Efficiency of Biogas Production System and Incineration with Power Generation

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money in the Recycling Business

Get Instant Access

Unit Incineration with power Biogas production


Biogas generated Nm3/t 100

Calorific value generated Kcal/t l,000,000a 5,000,000

Electric power generated KWh/t 150 150

Efficiency assumed % 13 26

Self-consumption of KWh/t 100 50b electricity

Net gain of energy_KWh/t_50__100_

aAssuming garbage of 1000 kcal/kg; bNot including wastewater treatment. Source: Ref. 50.

Generally, food processing does not generate chemical hazards. However, attention should be given to chlorine used for cleaning and sanitation leading to chlorinated byproducts in wastewater. If contaminated by poisonous materials or pathogens, food may change to hazardous wastes. Treatment of BMP by cement kiln is a typical example of this.

As previously discussed, incineration of food wastes together with other miscellaneous wastes is not a suitable solution because of the generation of hazardous ash containing DXNs and heavy metals; doing so also threatens food recycling efforts. A recommended option would be composting followed by the combination of biogas production and composting of the sludge.

During the past 30 years, wastewater from food processing in Japan has been significantly improved due to better wastewater treatment systems and conversion of raw materials or processes. It is notable that primary processes generating much waste have been shifted to other countries where the raw materials are produced and sometimes to developing countries where cheap labor is supplied.

Anaerobic treatment systems lost their popularity in wastewater treatment fields for failing to meet strict environmental criteria. Recently, however, these systems have regained attention because of their ability to save energy and also reflecting the development of UASB or EGSB technology.

In relation to ISO 14000, some companies have targeted and attained zero emission in their industries. However, zero emission should also cover all products, including containers and wrappers.


The authors thank Dr. H. Nakanishi, Emeritus Professor of Yamaguchi University, and Dr. I. Fukunaga, Professor of Osaka Human Science University, and other individuals for giving us valuable input.


1. Ukita, M.; Prasertsan, P. Present state of food and feed cycle and accompanying issues around Japan. Water Sci. Technol., 2002, 45(12), 13-21.

2. Ushikubo, A. Present state of food wastes and countermeasures for Food Recycling Act; (in Japanese), 2002.

3. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. International Statistics on Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; MAFF, 1998.

4. Fukunaga, I. Recent advances of the treatment and disposal of wastewater and solid waste in food industry. Foods and Food Ingredients J. Japan, 1995, 165, 21-30 (in Japanese).

5. Mavrov; Belieres. Reduction of water consumption and wastewater quantities in the food industry by water recycling using membrane processes. Desalination 2000, 131, 75-86.

6. Ridgway; Henthorn; Hull. Controlling of overfilling in food processing. J. Mater. Process.

7. Norcross, K.L. Sequencing batch reactors—An overview. Water Sci. Technol 1992, 26 (9-11),


8. Wentzel, M.C.; Ekama, G.A.; Marais, G.V.R. Kinetic of nitrification denitrification biological excess phosphorus removal systems: A review. Water Sci. Technol. 1990, 17 (11-12), 57-71.

9. Zhou, H.; Smith, D.E. Advanced technologies in water and wastewater treatment. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2002, 1, 247-264.

10. Sumino, T. Immobilization of nitrifying bacteria by polyethylene glycol pre-polymer, J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1991; 73, 37-42.

11. Lettinga, G. et al. Use of upflow sludge blanket reactor concept for biological wastewater treatment, especially for anaerobic treatment. BiotechnoLl. Bioeng. 1980, 22, 699-734.

12. Kato, M.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. Feasibility of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low strength soluble wastewaters. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1994, 44, 469-479.

13. US Environmental Protection Agency. Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet Sequencing Batch Reactors, EPA/832/F-99/073; US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water: Washington, DC, 1999.

14. Nippon Suido Consultant Co. Ltd. Report of the Investigation on Instruction for Reducing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Load (in Japanese); Nippon Suido Consultant Co. Ltd., 1982.

15. Ministry of Environment Japan. Report on the Discharge ofWater Pollutant in 2002 (in Japanese); Ministry of Environment Japan, 2003.

16. USEPA. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations,, 2003.

17. Central Council of Environment. Draft on the Regulation of COD, Nitrogen and Phosphorus (in Japanese), serial=1317 (in Japanese), 2000.

18. Bureau of Environment Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Criteria ofwastewater (in Japanese); Bureau of Environment: Tokyo, 2002.


19. The Research Group for Biological Organic Wastes. Present State and Problems on Biological Organic Wastes (in Japanese); Research Group for Biological Organic Works, 1999.

20. Japan Livestock Industry Association. Report on Promoting Feed Use ofUn-utilized Resources (in Japanese); Japan Livestock Industry Association, 1996.

21. Teijin Ltd. Technical Report on PET recycling; Teijin Ltd., 2000.

22. USEPA. EPCRA Section 313 Reporting Guidance for Food Processors; USEPA: Washington, DC, 1998.

23. The final report of the investigation on the food poisoning accidents by Yukijirushi Milk Company; (in Japanese).

24. Endo, K. The recode of the discussion in budget committee in Japanese Parliament, The 1 st Mar. (in Japanese), 2002.

25. Ukita, M. Fundamental Research on the Behavior of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and on the Mechanisms of Eutrophication in Japan; Thesis of Kyoto University (in Japanese), 1987.

26. Titapiwatanakun, B. Report of Strategy Agricultural Comodity Project: Cassava; Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Faculty of Economics: Kasetsart University, 1997.

27. Klanorang, S.; Kuakoon, P.; Sittichoke, W.; Christopher, O. Cassava Starch Technology: The Thai Experience. Trends Food Sci Technol., 2000, 52, 439-449.

28. Balagopalan, C.; Padmaja, G. Cyanogen accumulation in environment during processing of casaba (Manihot esculenta Grantz) for starch and sago. Water Air Solid Pollu. 1998, 102, 407413.

29. Nagano, A. Study on the Decolorization of Molasses Wastewater, Thesis of Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan, 2000.

30. Kumar, M.N.V.R. Chitin and Chitosan for Versatile Applications,, 2003.

31. Souza, M.E.; Fuzaro, G.; Polegato, A.R. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of vinasse in pilot plant UASB reactor. Wat. Sci. Technol., 1992, 25 (7), 213.

32. Wiegant, W.M.; Claasseen, J.A.; Lettinga, G. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters. Biotechnol Bioeng, 1986, 27(9), 1374.

33. Harada, H.; Uemura, S.; Chen, A.C.; Jayadevan, J. Anaerobic treatment of a recalcitrant distillery wastewater by a thermophilic UASB reactor. Biores. Technol, 1996, 55, 215-221.

34. Rintala, J.; Martin, J.S.L.; Lettinga, G. Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich pulp and paper integrate process water. Wat. Sci. Technol, 1991, 24 (3/4), 149.

35. Zuxuan, Z.; Zepeng, C.; Zeshu, Q. Status quo and prospects on the study of anaerobic digestion for industrial wastewater in China In Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, 1985; 259.

36. Ohtsuki, T.; Tominaga, S.; Morita, T.; Yoda, M. Thermophilic UASB system start-up and management change in sludge characteristics in the start-up procedure using mesophilic granular sludge In Proceedings of 7th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, 1994; 348.

37. Daoming, S.; Forster, C.F. An examination of the start-up of a thermophilic upflow sludge blanket reactor treating a synthetic coffee waste. Environ. Technol, 1994, 14, 965.

38. Lepisto, S.S.; Rintala, J. The removal of chlorinated phenolic compounds from chlorine bleaching effluents using thermophilic anaerobic processes. Water Sci. Technol., 1994, 29 (5/6), 373.

39. Harada, H.; Syutsubo, K.; Ohashi, A.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Tagawa, T. Realization of super high-rate anaerobic wastewaters treatment by a novel multi-staged thermophilic UASB reactor. Environ. Eng. Res, 1997, 34, 327-336.

40. Syutsubo, K.; Harada, H.; Ohashi, A.; Suzuki, H. An effective start-up of thermophilic UASB reactor by seeding mesophilically grown granular sludge. In Proceedings 8th International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion, 1997; Vol. 1, 388-396.

41. Rintala, J.; Lepisto, S.S. Anaerobic treatment of thermomechanical pulping wastewater at 35-70°C. Water Res., 1992, 26 (10), 1297.

42. Zhang J.; Shanghai Communication University. Personal communication, 2003.

43. Satu S. Lepisto. Start-up and operation of laboratory-scale thermophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating vegetable processing wastewaters. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 1997, 68, 331-339.

44. Yushina, Y.; Husegawa, J. Process performance comparison of membrane introduced anaerobic digestion using food industry wastewater. Desalination, 1998, 27, 413-421.

45. Inoue, Y.; Doi, K.; Kamiyama, K. Granule formation facilitation of up flow type sludge blanket reactor using UF membrane. In Proceedings of 45th JSCE Annual Conference, 1991; Vol. 45/II, 1084-1085 (in Japanese).

46. Hibana, K. Tackling with zero emission in beer brewery. In Practices of the Introducing ZeroEmission in Industries; NTS Publisher, 2001; 147-168 (in Japanese).

47. Sakai, S.Booklet "Let's make compost and fermented feed from garbage" (in Japanese), 2000.

48. Shirai, Y. The introduction of research,, 2003.

49. Li, G. The application of methane fermentation technology in sludge recycling center, New century of environmental engineering; The Committee of Environmental Engineering JSCE, 2003; 73-74 (in Japanese).

50. Kawano, T. Biogas production from garbage, new century of environmental engineering; The Committee of Environmental Engineering JSCE, 2003; 73-74 (in Japanese).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Waste Management And Control

Waste Management And Control

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Understanding Waste Management. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To The Truth about Environment, Waste and Landfills.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment