Table 2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Treatments of Hazardous Wastes

Method of treatment

Advantages

Disadvantages

Physical treatment (sedimentation, volatilization, fixation, evaporation, heat treatment, radiation, etc.) Chemical treatment (oxidation, incineration, reduction, immobilization, chelating, transformation) Physico-chemical treatment (adsorption, absorption)

Biotechnological aerobic treatment (oxidation, transformation, degradation)

Biotechnological anaerobic treatment (reduction, degradation)

• Required time is from some minutes to some hours,

• Required time is from some minutes to some hours.

• Required time is from some minutes to some hours.

• Low volume or absence of secondary hazardous wastes.

• Process can be initiated by natural microorganisms or small quantity of added microbial biomass.

• Wide spectrum of degradable substances and diverse methods of biodegradability.

• Low volume or absence of secondary hazardous wastes

• Process can be initiated by natural microorganisms or small quantity of added microbial biomass.

• Wide spectrum of degradable substances and diverse methods of biodegradability.

• High expenses for energy and equipment,

• High expenses for reagents, energy, and equipment; air pollution due to incineration,

• High expenses for adsorbents; formation of secondary hazardous waste.

• Some expenses for aeration, nutrients, and maintenance of optimal conditions.

• Required time is from some hours to days,

• Unexpected or negative effects of microorganisms-destructors.

• Low predictability of the system because of complexity and high sensitivity of biological systems.

• Required time is from some days to months

• Emission of bad smelling or toxic gases,

• Unexpected or negative effects of microorganisms-destructors.

• Low predictability of the system because of complexity and high sensitivity of biological systems.

Landfilling (as a combination of • Low expenses for landfilling. • Harmful air emissions; physical and biological leaching; expensive land use.

treatment)

• Required time is some years.

3. Biotechnological treatment is more cost-effective than other methods; the low cost of biotechnological treatment is largely attributed to the small quantities or total absence of added reagents and microbial biomass to start up the biotreatment process;

4. Public acceptance of biotechnological treatment is better than for chemical or phy sical treatment.

However, the efficiency of actual biotechnological application depends on its design, process optimization, and cost minimization. Many failures have been reported on the way from bench laboratory-scale to field full-scale biotechnological treatment because of variability, instability, diversity, and heterogeneity of both microbial properties and conditions in the treatment system [10].

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    What are the advantages and disadvantages of physical hazard?
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