Table 11 Lube Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

_Probability of occurrence, percent less than or equal to_

TOC

31.46 (11)

108.68 (38)

386.1 (135)

TSS

17.16 (6)

71.5 (25)

311.74 (109)

O&G

23.74 (8.3)

120.12 (42)

600.6 (210)

Phenols

4.58 (1.6)

8.29 (2.9)

51.91 (18.5)

Ammonia

6.5 (2.3)

24.1 (8.5)

96.2 (34)

Sulfides

0.00001 (0.000005)

0.014 (0.005)

20.02 (7.0)

Chromium

0.002 (0.0006)

0.046 (0.016)

1.23 (0.43)

Flowb

68.64 (24)

117.26 (41)

772.2 (270)

"Values represent kg/1000 m3 (lb/1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput. b1000 m3/1000 m3 feedstock throughput (gallons/bbl.).

BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand; TOC, total organic carbon; TSS, total suspended solids; O&G, oil and grease. Source: From Ref. 7.

"Values represent kg/1000 m3 (lb/1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput. b1000 m3/1000 m3 feedstock throughput (gallons/bbl.).

BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand; TOC, total organic carbon; TSS, total suspended solids; O&G, oil and grease. Source: From Ref. 7.

Table 12 Integrated Subcategory Raw Waste Load Effluent from Refinery API Separatora

Parameters

Probability of occurrence, percent less than

or equal to

10

50 (median)

90

bod5

63.49 (22.2)

197.34 (69.0)

614.9 (215)

COD

72.93 (25.5)

328.9 (115)

1487.2 (520)

TOC

28.6 (10.0)

139.0 (48.6)

677.82 (237)

O&G

20.88 (7.3)

74.93 (26.2)

268.84 (94.0)

Phenol

0.61 (0.215)

3.78 (132)

22.60 (7.9)

TSS

15.16 (5.3)

58.06 (20.3)

225.94 (79.0)

Sulfur

0.52 (0.182)

2.00 (0.70)

7.87 (2.75)

Chromium

0.12 (0.043)

0.49 (0.17)

121.55 (42.5)

Ammonia

3.43 (1.20)

20.50 (7.15)

121.55 (42.5)

Flowb

40.04 (14.0)

234.52 (82.0)

1372.8 (480)

aValues given represent kg/1000 m3 (lb/1000 bbl) of feedstock throughput. b1000 m3/1000 m3 feedstock throughput (gallons/bbl).

BOD, biochemical oxygen demand; COD, chemical oxygen demand; TOC, total organic carbon; TSS, total suspended solids; O&G, oil and grease. Source: From Ref. 7.

The amount and type of wastes generated in a refinery depend on a variety of factors such as crude capacity, number of refining processes, crude source, and operating procedures. A 130,000 bpd integrated refinery on the West Coast generates about 50,000 tons per year of hazardous waste (including recycled streams and unfiltered sludges). The major wastes are wastewater treatment plant sludge, spent caustics, Stretford solution and sulfur, and spent catalysts [19]. A much simpler 50,000 bpd refinery generates only 400 tons per year of hazardous waste. Major wastes in this refinery are wastewater treatment plant sludge (dewatered by pressure filtration), spent catalysts, and spent clay filter media [19].

4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS

Three categories of regulatory limitations apply to wastewater discharge from industrial facilities such as oilfields and petroleum refineries [20]. The first category includes effluent limitations, which are designed to control those industry-specific wastewater constituents deemed significant from the standpoints of water quality impact and treatability in conventional treatment systems. In the United States, these limitations are the EPA Effluent Guidelines, issued under Public Law 92-500.

The second category includes pretreatment discharge requirements established both by the EPA and certain municipalities that treat combined industrial and domestic wastes in their publicly owned treatment works. These standards have not been updated by USEPA as of 2003.

The third category includes effluent limitations associated with maintaining or establishing desirable water uses in certain bodies of effluent-receiving waters, that is, water-quality-limiting segments as defined in Public Law 92-500. This last category became the overriding category in many locations in the United States when the EPA published its final surface water toxics control rule on June 2, 1989 [21]. These three categories of effluent limitations are discussed below.

Industrial Solid Wastes
Figure 8 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in refinery system. Most solid wastes from refineries are

considered hazardous wastes in the United States. (From Ref. 18.)

Refinery Solids Waste
Figure 9 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in utility water system. These wastes may not be classified as hazardous in the United States. (From Ref. 18.)
Wastewater Refinery
Figure 10 Refinery schematic diagram indicating representative sources of solid waste in wastewater treatment system. All wastes except waste activated sludge are classified as hazardous wastes because of their oil contents. (From Ref. 18.)

4.4.1 Effluent Guidelines for Industrial Point Source Categories

USEPA has established effluent limitations on wastewater constituents for various industrial categories. The EPA effluent limitations for Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category are under 40 CFR Part 435 (Code of Federal Register, 1988). The regulations differentiate between offshore, onshore, and coastal facilities. The limitation for onshore oil and gas facilities is no discharge of wastewater pollutants into navigable waters from any source associated with production, field exploration, drilling, well completion, or well treatment (produced water, drilling muds, drill cuttings, and produced sand). Owing to a challenge in court (API vs. EPA, 1981), the limitation was suspended for facilities located in the Santa Maria Basin of California.

For onshore facilities located in the continental United States and west of the 98th meridian for which the produced water has a use in agriculture or wildlife propagation when discharged into navigable waters, discharge of produced water is allowed if its oil and grease (O&G) concentration does not exceed 35 mg/L. Other wastes from these onshore facilities are not to be discharged to navigable waters.

The effluent limitations for offshore and coastal oil and gas facilities are identical. The main criteria for discharge are O&G concentrations. For produced water, the effluent limitations are 72 mg/L of O&G maximum for anyone day and 48 mg/L of O&G average for 30 consecutive days. For other industrial wastes from these facilities, the effluent limitations are no discharge of free oil.

The EPA promulgated Effluent Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Refining Industry under 40 CFR Part 419 on May 9, 1974, and published the most recent update to Part 419 on August 12, 1985 (Federal Register). Standards for direct dischargers are mass-limited, not concentration-limited, and are expressed in pounds per 1000 barrels of feedstock. The standards are further subdivided into five subcategories within the petroleum refining category, as described earlier in this chapter. The standards for each subcategory may in turn be modified by "size" and "process" factors. For example, in the topping subcategory, a plant of less than 24,000 bpsd of feedstock would have a size factor of 1.02 applied to the effluent limitations, and a plant of 150,000 bpsd or greater would have a size factor of 1.57 applied.

The EPA has established four different control technologies for the petroleum refining industry: best practicable control technology (BPT), best available technology economically achievable (BAT), best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT), and new source performance standards (NSPS). Table 13 shows the BPT and NSPS standards that must be met by the various subcategories (40 CFR Part 419). The limitations for BPT actually incorporate those of both BAT and BCT for this industry.

In addition to these effluent standards, the EPA has also established separate BPT, BAT, BCT, and NSPS standards for ballast water and BPT, BAT, and BCT standards for contaminated storm water (40 CFR Part 419). Once-through cooling water is allowed for direct discharge if the total organic carbon concentration does not exceed 5 mg/L.

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