Steam-stripping is similar to distillation. Steam contacts the wastewater to remove the soluble or sparingly soluble VOCs by driving them into the vapor phase. The steam, which behaves both as a heating medium and a carrier gas, can be supplied as live or reboiled steam. As shown in Fig. 9 , a steam-stripping system generally includes an influent storage drum, feed/bottom heat exchangers, pumps, a stripping column (packed column or tray tower), an overhead condenser, an effluent storage drum, and sometimes a reflux drum. Reflux is used to enrich or concentrate the VOCs in the condensate. Enrichment of the condensate could provide higher energy content so that it can be burned for energy recovery .
In the pesticide industry, steam-stripping has proven effective for removing groups of priority pollutants such as volatile aromatics, halomethanes, and chloroethanes as well as a variety of nonpriority pollutant compounds such as xylene, hexane, methanol, ethylamine, and ammonia . Thus, this process is used to reduce or remove organic solvents from waste
stripping column near the top; the liquid stream flows downward through the packing, and steam flows upward, carrying volatile compounds; the overhead is condensed and liquid returned to the column; volatile compounds are either recycled or incinerated (from Ref. 11).
streams. A comprehensive study on steam-stripping of organic priority pollutants indicated that effluent concentrations of these pollutants can be reduced to as low as 0.05 mg/L from influent concentrations at their solubility . Pesticides usually have high molecular weights and low volatility and are not effectively removed by steam-stripping.
One variation of steam-stripping is vacuum-stripping, which uses vacuum to create the driving force for pollutant separation. Vacuum strippers normally operate at an absolute pressure of 2 in. of mercury. At least eight pesticide manufacturing plants in the United States use steamstripping or vacuum-stripping for VOCs removal . The flow rates vary from 0.01 to 0.09 MGD. For example, one pesticide plant uses a steam-stripper to remove methylene chloride from a segregated stream with a flow rate of 0.0165 MGD. The stripper contains 15 ft of packing consisting of 1 in. polypropylene saddles. The steam feed rate is about 1860 lb/hour. Stripped compounds are recycled to the process, thus realizing a net economic savings.
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