Spill prevention programs are most utilized in the hazardous waste field, where specific measures have been implemented for the prevention/containment of hazardous material spillage. Spills can occur due to (a) the rupturing of a storage vessel, (b) overfilling a vessel, (c) breaks in conveyance pipelines or equipment, and (d) inadvertent discharge via an open drain connection. The majority of spill prevention protocols developed to date have been in the area of liquid spill prevention; however, many of the same concepts apply to solid material spills, where such solids are also stored in vessels (hoppers, silos, etc.). When potentially contaminating liquids or materials are stored either in vessels (liquids/solids) or stockyard piles (solids) subjected to stormwater, spill prevention and containment should be implemented. The measures to be implemented should include both the storage area and areas designated for the delivery of liquids/materials (transfer or unloading areas).
Areas where delivery vehicles will be parked during the transfer of liquids/materials should be within a diked area or otherwise enclosed area where drainage can be isolated in the event of a spill. Drains from these areas should normally be closed and routinely opened to allow uncontaminated stormwater to be released and spillage or contaminated stormwater to be collected. In the event this area becomes contaminated, the extent of contamination will be limited to the delivery area from where stormwater can be pumped out and decontaminated.
The storage vessels subjected to stormwater should be contained within a diked area or containment wall/tank suitable to contain the contents of the vessel should a rupture of the vessel or interconnecting piping occur. Similarly, this would limit the quantity of stormwater that may be contaminated and facilitate the collection and disposal of contaminated water. As an example, aboveground oil storage facilities have been regulated by state legislature, local regulations, and fire codes. These provide an excellent example of preventive measures and generally offer protection for stormwater.
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